Sunday, May 23, 2010


Sunday, May 23, 2010

Concept of Bio-diversity
There are millions of living beings including plants, animals, birds and micro level organisms on the earth. There are differences and diversities among them. These diversities and differences in ecosystem refer to bio-diversity. This is the bio-diversity of heredity and specie. Bio-diversity brings differences in the ecosystem where organism and gene play an important role. Bio-diversity of an area refers to existing organism, gene, animals, and ecosystem per unit of land. In totality, bio-diversity refers to the existing number of living organisms and their diversity.

Bio-diversity can be classified into three groups – species, ecosystem and genes. Man, elephant, birds, maize, wheat, pluses, potatoes, and plants are included within species. The species of organism and virus are also included in them. This is the numerical counting of species. Ecosystem is a habitat for the living beings. The structure of ecosystem causes bio-diversity. Even living beings have their own heredity qualities. The people of the Himalayas have the hereditary quality to tolerate severe cold whereas those of the region can tolerate hot temperature.

Bio-diversity differs according to the geographical regions. Therefore, there are diversities in living things. Some living beings found on land, some in the water and the other in the atmosphere. Similarly, some plants are found in lithosphere whereas the others found in hydrosphere. Some plants are floating on the water while others live under it. Bio-diversity and conservation have been maintained because living beings can adjust themselves according to geographical conditions. The living beings within bio-diversity exists in association with special relationship among them. If one species in destroyed or disturbed, the whole system of living things will be affected. The negative effects on their system of living beings will disturb the whole ecosystem. For example, the forested area of any place is destroyed, the system, the vegetation, wild life and other living beings will be negatively affected. It will be difficult for them to live in their area.

1. Diversity of Ecosystem
Various types of land and water ecosystems and found according to geographical region. There are different types of ecosystems in Nepal according to geographical features. Nepal is divided into the Himal, the Hills, and the Terai. The Himalayan range is extended northern part. Mount Everest. The highest peak is also located in it. The mid hilly region is located between the Himalayan region in the north and the terai in the south. About half of the country’s land is represented by the hilly region. The region comprise of hills hillock and tar. The lowland is located in southern part. The region is extended from Mechi in the east to Mahakali to the west. The climate differs in each of geographical region. Therefore, there is a diversity in the land and water ecosystem of Nepal due to her physiography and climate. Various types of world ecosystem expect those of the oceans and desert are found in Nepal. Ecosystem differs from the one geographical region to another depending on relief features, soil, slope of the land and steepness, face and altitude. This difference has created a great diversity in the ecosystem of each geographical region. Due to the diversity of ecosystem, there are great differences in vegetation and animals of Nepal.
There are glacial lakes in the Himalayan region. In the same way, lakes, ponds, and cool places are located in various places of the hilly region. Similarly, there are wet lands and small ponds along the sides of the stream and rivers flowing through the Hills and the Terai regions. There are big and small ecosystems in each of the regions of Nepal. The wet land ecosystem is regarded important for the growth and conservation of bio-diversity. A variation appears in vegetation and animals due to the physiography and chemical properties of water in various ecosystems.

2. Species Diversity

Nepal shares about 0.1 percent of the land in the earth. The 71 percent area covered by water is not included in it. If it is included the proportion becomes 0.03 percent. Species diversity has topography starting from one of the lowest to the highest Himalayan peaks of the world. Species diversity has created differences in the ecosystem of each geographical region. Especially, the Hill ecosystem has much diversity. Species diversity has created suitable habitat for different types of species. In this context, Nepal is a rich country from the viewpoint of species diversity. Nepal is famous in bio-diversity in the world.

a. Status of species
In the year 1995, Bio-diversity Project Profile had published the statistics on vegetation, animals, and birds of Nepal. The statistics of the diversity of species stated by it are presented in the table below.
Diversity of Species in Nepal
Diversity of Species in Nepal

Based on the above statistics of vegetation and wild lives, bio-diversity has a great importance in Nepal. About 2.2 percent of the worlds vegetation is available in Nepal.

b. Status of Plants Diversity
In 1997 A.D, The Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation has published the statistics on the plant species. According to this, the status of vegetation by comparing the statistics of algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes of species in the world. Comparing with the global scenario, algae (1.72 percent), fungi (2.38 percent), lichen (2.07 percent), bryophytes (6.09 percent), ptridophytes (3.19 percent), flowing plants (2.07 percent) are available in Nepal.

c. Comparative Situation of Animals and Birds
The diversity of living beings available in Nepal is compared to that of the world. The essential data and facts are in table below.
Diversity of animals and birds in Nepal.Diversity of animals and birds in NepalSource: Bio-diversity Project Profile, 1995.

Nepal is rich in animals, bird and insects. Of the world bio-diversity of species Nepal represents 0.01 percent insects, 4.2 percent butterflies, 2.2 percent fish, 1.1 percent amphibians, 1.5 percent reptiles, 8.5 percent birds and 4.2 percent mammals respectively.


Bio-diversity has a significant important. Man’s development and bio-diversity are interrelated to each other. Bio-diversity important is closely associated with man’s food, housing, life styles, social activities and economic aspects. Thus, bio-diversity can also be regarded as the various sources of goods necessary for human beings. Bio-diversity importance has been explained below.

a. Agricultural Production
Agricultural products such as rice, maize, wheat, green vegetables and fruits are the basic sources of food for human beings. Their source is agriculture is biodiversity. Plants are crops of various species such as rice, maize, fruits and green vegetables are found in Nepal. Such crops and plants were found in the forest in the beginning but human beings started to cultivate them as useful plant. They selected good seeds and their plants. Such activities resulted in development of crops and plants. These are the major sources of food for human beings.

b. Animal Production
The sources of production required for human beings such as milk, curd, ghee, meat and fish are available for the bio-diversity. Similarly, horses and camel are used to transport goods from one place to another. Dogs are kept for security of houses. Various raw materials such as bones, hair, wool and leather are available for the animals. People make clothes, cosmetic goods and other by using them. The raw materials essential for medicines and also available from animals, birds and plants. Such goods can be produced and distributed. These are the sources of the income.

c. Plant Production
Roots and fruits are also available from plants. These are the sources of raw materials for the timber industries. herbs, clothes, medicines, colors and paper.

d. Improvement in breed
People keep animals and birds for their uses. These also plant various types of vegetation. The production capacity of local species and immunity against disease can be improved through their use. Therefore, bio-diversity helps to improve the existing living beings of various places. Wild species can be used to breed the domestic animals and birds. Important plants should be identified through studies and research works and be preserved.

e. Soil Conservation
Various plants appear in different places. Large and small plants keep the particles of soil by pressing them. They protect soil erosion. Therefore, the physical condition of a place is distributed if the plants and the grasses are destroyed. The structure of land becomes weak and soil erosion and landslide can occur. Thus, bio-diversity helps to preserve land, soil and physical feature.

f. Watershed Conservation
The vegetation such as plants and grasslands help to conserve sources of water and watershed. The area of green belts is less evaporated and the water is collected in the land. Bio-diversity and sources of water and watershed areas are related to each other. One cannot exist in the absence of other. For examples, if sources of water are dry, there will be a loss in bio-diversity. Thus, biodiversity plays a significant role in the conservation and promotion of watershed areas.

g. Natural Beauty and Scenes
Bio-diversity makes environment and nature beautiful. Natural environment is created by plants, animals and birds, their size and types, colour, adaptation and responses. The habitat of animals and birds in the forest, their sound/noise and responses and life styles maintain natural beauty. Such beauty provides entertainment to men. There are a number of such places in the Himalayan, Hilly and the Terai regions of Nepal.


Thursday, May 6, 2010


Thursday, May 6, 2010

The geographical diversity with different climatic conditions and difficult transport and communication have resulted in the social and cultural diversity. The geography of a country has a big hand in developing diverse communities, castes, ethnic groups having different customs, traditions and beliefs.

People of different races, castes, ethnic groups and communities such as Brahman, Chhetri, Magar, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Tharu, Tamang, Sherpa, Thakali, Yadav, Rajbanshi, Dhimal and Muslim live in different parts of the country. Unity in diversity is another specially of the Nepalese culture and tradition. People of different ethnic groups have there own cultures, mother tongue, festivals, songs, dances, dresses, customs, rites and rituals.

Through there is diversity in culture, there is unity in traditions, social values and norms. For example, we (Nepali people) all share the common tradition of respecting the seniors, loving the juniors. We regard parents and teachers as God. We all welcome our guests. We respect all the religions equality. We are always ready to help each other when needed. Above all, we love our nation and nationhood.

Nepal is divided into three geographically regions.
a) Mountains Regions.
b) Hill Region and
c) Terai Region.

Different communities and ethnic groups having different language, religions, customs and traditions are living together. All these people share the common characteristics of love, peace and feeling of brotherhood and cooperation.

Here is a brief description of the social, religion and traditions of each geographical region.

Mountain region
People: Bhote, Sherpa, Thakali, Tamang, Gurung etc.
Occupation: Animal husbandly and dairy farming.
Food: Dhindo, Rice, Bread, Potato, Meat.
Dress: Bakkhu and Docha.
Religion: Buddhism.
Festival: Lhosar.

Hill region
People: Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Tamang.
Occupation: Agricultural and horticulture.
Food: Rice, Bread, Meat, Egg, Milk products.
Dress: Daura-Suruwal, coat and topi, Bhoto-kachhad and Patuka for men, Cholo-Fariya majetro for women.
Religion: Hinduism and Buddhism.
Festival: Janai Purnima, Dashain, Tihar, Shiva-ratri etc.

Terai Region
People: Tharu, Danuwar, Sunuwar, Dhimal, Rajpur, Sattar etc.
Occupation: Agriculture, Industry, Trade and Business
Food: Bread, Rice, Milk products
Dress: Dhoti-Kurta, Kamiz, Lungi, for men. Sari, Blouse for women.
Religion: Hinduism and Islam
Festival: Chhath, Raksha Bandhan, Holi, Diwali for Hindus. Id, Bakhrid, Muharram for Muslim.



Children should grow and develop all round–physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. For this, proper care and facilities should be provided to them. Children need food, clothing, shelter, health facilities, education, protection, entertainment and above all, freedom. All children have a claim for these things in a society. These are the basic rights of children.

Children can demand these things from their parents and elders. Most of the children are not aware of their rights. Hence, it is the responsibility of the adults to make them aware of their rights.

Children are tender are small. Children are dependent on the elders. The future of every child depends on the care, facilities and opportunities they get during their childhood. Therefore, if children do not get what they need, they cannot grow up to become worthy citizens of the country. In order to grow up properly, some basic needs are to be fulfilled as their right.

Some Right of Children
All the Children have the following rights:
  • Right to food.
  • Right to clothing.
  • Right to shelter.
  • Right to education.
  • Right to entertainment.
  • Right to good health and proper nourishment.
  • Right to name and country.

These are some of the rights. All these rights are called rights. It does not matter weather a child in rich or poor, has parents or in an orphan, is strong or weak, sick or healthy, all have the same rights.

Protection of Child Rights
An international conference held under the supervision of UNO in 1989 AD, concerning the child rights, passed the resolution to protect child rights. Nepal also signed the charter of the convection. The conference advocated the rights of children to name, to a country along with care from family, to good and health and proper nourishment. All these right are in fact, the basic necessities for survival. The conference also believed in a child right to lead his/her life as he/she wishes, getting an education, participating in sports and entertainment, etc. Children have the right to express their thoughts freely and independently.

It is the duty of every country to protect the rights of its children. Keeping this in mind, Nepal too passed a Bill on child rights in 2049 BS. There are some provisions in constitution regarding the child right, such as:
  • Provision of free education for all the children.
  • Special arrangements for the protection and promotion of children by the state.

There are many other agencies which are working for the protection of child rights. These organizations can be approached for help. For example, Nepal Children’s Organization helps the poor and orphans by providing food, shelter, education and health facilities. UNICEF is playing an important role in spreading awareness about the child rights. Similarly, ILO is working to abolish child labour.

Duties of Children
While children have rights, they also have certain duties to perform. Some of their duties are:
  • Respect their parents, teachers, elders and love youngsters.
  • Pay attention to personal hygiene.
  • Help people in need.
  • Sharing things with others.
  • Use polite language.
  • Study, play, eat and sleep at proper time.



The industry which needs small amount of investment, small space to run and small number of labours is called the cottage (small scale) industry, or according to the definition of Industrial Enterprises Act, 2054 (emended), “the industries having a maximum of 30 million rupees of fixed deposit called small scale industries”. Such an industry mainly provides the employment opportunity to the people of the rural areas. It ensures use of leisure time, utilization of raw materials, utilization of labour and still and provides employment opportunity. Thus, it helps the economic progress. The industries which need large investment, skilled and semi-skilled human power and use of machine and tools and yield large scale production are called medium and large scale industries. According to Industrial Enterprises Act (amended), Industries having thirty million to one hundred million rupees as fixed capital are called medium scale-industries”. The role of medium and large scale industries is significant in bringing remarkable change for the economic progress of the country. Such industries produce goods needed for the nation. These productions fulfill the need of the nation. As a result, we don’t need to import goods from aboard. This types of arrangement saves currency. The saving can be used for industries and other sectors. Such industries help the development of agricultural sector. Similarly, they create employment opportunities, increase exports and mobilize resources and means. Therefore, medium and large scale industries have significantly contribution to the economic progress of a country.


Tuesday, May 4, 2010


Tuesday, May 4, 2010

This is the age of industrialization. Only the development of industries can bring about changes in economic status of any country. There are some countries in the world showing quick pace of development. Those counties are called ‘Developed Countries’, like the USA, Japan, France, Germany, etc. All these counties are categorized as industrial countries.

Countries whose economy is based upon agriculture are called developing countries like the countries of Asia and Africa. Therefore, the measuring rod of the economic achievements of a country is its industries.

Nepal is predominantly an agricultural country and the development of industry is absolutely essential for its economic achievement. Thus, industry is next to agriculture which can contribute to making the economy strong and powerful.

The advantages of industries are as follows:
  • Proper use of the country’s means and resources.
  • Creates job opportunities.
  • Maximum production will enhance export and reduce import.
  • Helps to earn foreign currencies.
  • Development of infrastructure.
  • Increase in per capita income and bring improvement in the standard of living.
  • Helps to support the development of agricultural sector.
  • Country will become self-dependent.

In recent years, several industries have been established at different places, but, have not developed well due to various problems. The problems are as follows:
  • Lack of sufficient raw materials.
  • Lack of appropriate industrial policy.
  • Lack of capital.
  • Lack of skilled human resources.
  • Lack of market.
  • Lack of better means of transport and communication.
  • Lack of proper machinery and tools.

Solutions to the problems faced by industries:
  • Provision of market.
  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Availability of skilled manpower.
  • Preparation of appropriate industrial policy.
  • Provision of capital.
  • Facility of transport and communication.
  • Provision of storage.
  • Political stability and good governance.



Many industries running in Nepal are based on agriculture. Such industries are dependent on the raw materials that come from agriculture sector. The examples are sugar industry from sugarcane, jute industry from jute, cotton factory from cotton, leather industry from animal skin, tea factory from tea leaves, etc. To run these industries, raw materials are made available from the agriculture sector.

Agriculture tools like spade, plough, etc are produced in the industries. Increased production in agriculture is made possible by the use of these tools. Other items including chemical fertilizers and insecticides are made available by industries. We can have increased agriculture production through appropriate use of agriculture tools, chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Similarly generator needed for irrigation is produced and supplied by industry. Therefore, there is mutual relationship between agriculture and industry. Agriculture and industry can be promoted through mutual relationship between these two. More than 80% of the people of Nepal are involved in agriculture. Over 50% of the national income and over 40% of national production comprise agriculture. So, it is necessary to develop more and more agro-based industries in Nepal. Agro-based industries utilize the raw materials available from agriculture like tea leaves, sugarcane, cotton, oil seeds, milk, etc. There are many such industries in Nepal. Agriculture and industries are like two sides of a coin. They are inter-dependent.

Agriculture provides agricultural raw materials to the industries and industries produce manufactured or finished products from those raw materials. Thus, we have seen that without agricultural raw materials, agro-based industries cannot run. The development of agro-based industries depends upon the availability of agricultural raw materials. The quality and quantity of agricultural raw materials also depend upon industries. In other words, agriculture also depends upon industry.

The development of agriculture depends upon industry because:
  • Industry produces agriculture tools plough, spade, thrasher, hoe, etc which help to make agricultural work and production more efficient and productive.
  • Chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides for agriculture are produced by industries. They protect the crops from diseases and help to grow in a better way.
  • Industry provides generators needed for irrigation in many of the places of Nepal.

Thus, there is a mutual relationship between agriculture and industry. In the absence of industry, agricultural production goes down and without agricultural production agro-based industry will have no meaning. One fulfils the needs and the other fulfils the demands of a nation. This harmony is the key to rapid economic development of Nepal.


Sunday, May 2, 2010


Sunday, May 2, 2010
  1. COUNTRY NAME ---------------------- : Nepal
  2. CAPITAL ------------------------------- : Kathmandu
  3. REGIONAL HEADQUARTER ----: Dhankuta, Kathmandu, Pokhara, Birendranagar and Dipayal
  4. AREA ----------------------------------- : 1,47,181 sq. km.
  5. POPULATION ----------------------- : 23,151,423 (2001)
  6. MALE --------------------------------- : 11,563,921
  7. FAMALE ------------------------------ : 11,587,502
  8. MAJOR CITIES -------------------- : Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Birgunj
  9. PER CAPITA (GNP) ------------------ : NRS. 18,852 / $ 246
  10. PER CAPITA (GDP) ----------------- : NRS. 18,083 / $ 236
  11. GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE --------- : 885km. length (East to West), 193 km Width (North to South) average.
  12. LOCATION -------------------------- : Longitude 80°04 East to 88°12 East, Latitude 26°22 North to 30°27’ North.
  13. ADM. DIVISION -------------------- : 5 Development Regions, 14 Zone, 75 District, 58 Municipalities, 3913 VDCs
  14. HIGHEST POINT ------------------- : Mt. Everest (8,848 m.)
  15. LOWEST POINT -------------------- : Kechana Kawal (60 m.)
  16. LONGEST RIVER ------------------- : Karnali (507 km.)
  17. BIGGEST RIVER -------------------- : Saptakoshi (28140 sq. km.)
  18. BIGGEST LAKE --------------------- : Rara (Mahendra), Area: 10.8, Depth: 167 m.
  19. LONGEST GLACIER ---------------- : Khumbu Valley (32 km.)
  20. LONGEST PITCH BRIDGE --------- : Mehuli Bridge (1130.08 m) Saptari
  21. OLDEST TEMPLE ------------------- : Swaymbhunath
  22. TALLEST TEMPLE ----------------- : Nyathpole Dewal
  23. MAXIMUM RAINFALL AREA ------ : Lumle (Kaski) > 5000 millimeter
  24. MINIMUM RAINFALL AREA ------ : Lho Manthang (Mustang) <25 millimeter
  25. OLDEST IDOL ----------------------- : Birupachha (Pasupatinath)

Area of Biggest Districts ----------- Area of Smallest Districts
Dolpa : 7889 sq km -------------------- Bhaktapur : 119 sq km
Humla : 5655 sq km ------------------- Lilitpur : 385 sq km
Taplejung : 3646 sq km ---------------- Kathmandu : 395 sq km
Gorkha : 3610 sq km ------------------- Parbat : 494 sq km



Nepal has diplomatic relation with many countries of the world. Foreign policy plays an important role in making such relations. Nepal has adopted non-aligned foreign policy. It is based on the principle of Panchasheel. This principle advocates the respect of sovereignty among the countries, non-invasion, non-inteference, equality and peaceful co-existence. The polity of non-alignment means the polity of neutrality and not taking any side in international political conflicts and issues. There are many such countries which do not take the side of any group or bloc when international conflict takes place. Such countries have formed organization called the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). NAM was established in 1955. Nepal has been taking part in the NAM.

Nepal is peace loving country. As a member of United Nations Organization, Nepal has been helping the UNO in maintaining peace by sending its troops to UN Peace Keeping Force. The Nepalese Army and Nepal Police have been deployed in many conflicting areas of the world by the UNO as a peace keeping force. Nepalese troops played a vital role to maintain peace in Kosovo, Lebanon, Somalia, Congo, Sierra Leone, East Timor and so on.

Nepal has made a substantial contribution to the UN peace keeping operations since 1958 AD. The performance of Nepalese army in peace keeping operations has earned good reputation in the world. Nepal is also the active member of SAARC. It also participates in various international tournaments. Such games and sports help to develop mutual co-operation and international understanding.