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Sunday, May 23, 2010

BIO-DIVERSITY IN NEPAL

Sunday, May 23, 2010

Concept of Bio-diversity
There are millions of living beings including plants, animals, birds and micro level organisms on the earth. There are differences and diversities among them. These diversities and differences in ecosystem refer to bio-diversity. This is the bio-diversity of heredity and specie. Bio-diversity brings differences in the ecosystem where organism and gene play an important role. Bio-diversity of an area refers to existing organism, gene, animals, and ecosystem per unit of land. In totality, bio-diversity refers to the existing number of living organisms and their diversity.

Bio-diversity can be classified into three groups – species, ecosystem and genes. Man, elephant, birds, maize, wheat, pluses, potatoes, and plants are included within species. The species of organism and virus are also included in them. This is the numerical counting of species. Ecosystem is a habitat for the living beings. The structure of ecosystem causes bio-diversity. Even living beings have their own heredity qualities. The people of the Himalayas have the hereditary quality to tolerate severe cold whereas those of the region can tolerate hot temperature.

Bio-diversity differs according to the geographical regions. Therefore, there are diversities in living things. Some living beings found on land, some in the water and the other in the atmosphere. Similarly, some plants are found in lithosphere whereas the others found in hydrosphere. Some plants are floating on the water while others live under it. Bio-diversity and conservation have been maintained because living beings can adjust themselves according to geographical conditions. The living beings within bio-diversity exists in association with special relationship among them. If one species in destroyed or disturbed, the whole system of living things will be affected. The negative effects on their system of living beings will disturb the whole ecosystem. For example, the forested area of any place is destroyed, the system, the vegetation, wild life and other living beings will be negatively affected. It will be difficult for them to live in their area.


1. Diversity of Ecosystem
Various types of land and water ecosystems and found according to geographical region. There are different types of ecosystems in Nepal according to geographical features. Nepal is divided into the Himal, the Hills, and the Terai. The Himalayan range is extended northern part. Mount Everest. The highest peak is also located in it. The mid hilly region is located between the Himalayan region in the north and the terai in the south. About half of the country’s land is represented by the hilly region. The region comprise of hills hillock and tar. The lowland is located in southern part. The region is extended from Mechi in the east to Mahakali to the west. The climate differs in each of geographical region. Therefore, there is a diversity in the land and water ecosystem of Nepal due to her physiography and climate. Various types of world ecosystem expect those of the oceans and desert are found in Nepal. Ecosystem differs from the one geographical region to another depending on relief features, soil, slope of the land and steepness, face and altitude. This difference has created a great diversity in the ecosystem of each geographical region. Due to the diversity of ecosystem, there are great differences in vegetation and animals of Nepal.
There are glacial lakes in the Himalayan region. In the same way, lakes, ponds, and cool places are located in various places of the hilly region. Similarly, there are wet lands and small ponds along the sides of the stream and rivers flowing through the Hills and the Terai regions. There are big and small ecosystems in each of the regions of Nepal. The wet land ecosystem is regarded important for the growth and conservation of bio-diversity. A variation appears in vegetation and animals due to the physiography and chemical properties of water in various ecosystems.

2. Species Diversity

Nepal shares about 0.1 percent of the land in the earth. The 71 percent area covered by water is not included in it. If it is included the proportion becomes 0.03 percent. Species diversity has topography starting from one of the lowest to the highest Himalayan peaks of the world. Species diversity has created differences in the ecosystem of each geographical region. Especially, the Hill ecosystem has much diversity. Species diversity has created suitable habitat for different types of species. In this context, Nepal is a rich country from the viewpoint of species diversity. Nepal is famous in bio-diversity in the world.

a. Status of species
In the year 1995, Bio-diversity Project Profile had published the statistics on vegetation, animals, and birds of Nepal. The statistics of the diversity of species stated by it are presented in the table below.
Diversity of Species in Nepal
Diversity of Species in Nepal

Based on the above statistics of vegetation and wild lives, bio-diversity has a great importance in Nepal. About 2.2 percent of the worlds vegetation is available in Nepal.

b. Status of Plants Diversity
In 1997 A.D, The Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation has published the statistics on the plant species. According to this, the status of vegetation by comparing the statistics of algae, fungi, bryophytes and pteridophytes of species in the world. Comparing with the global scenario, algae (1.72 percent), fungi (2.38 percent), lichen (2.07 percent), bryophytes (6.09 percent), ptridophytes (3.19 percent), flowing plants (2.07 percent) are available in Nepal.

c. Comparative Situation of Animals and Birds
The diversity of living beings available in Nepal is compared to that of the world. The essential data and facts are in table below.
Diversity of animals and birds in Nepal.Diversity of animals and birds in NepalSource: Bio-diversity Project Profile, 1995.

Nepal is rich in animals, bird and insects. Of the world bio-diversity of species Nepal represents 0.01 percent insects, 4.2 percent butterflies, 2.2 percent fish, 1.1 percent amphibians, 1.5 percent reptiles, 8.5 percent birds and 4.2 percent mammals respectively.


IMPORTANT OF BIO-DIVERSITY


Bio-diversity has a significant important. Man’s development and bio-diversity are interrelated to each other. Bio-diversity important is closely associated with man’s food, housing, life styles, social activities and economic aspects. Thus, bio-diversity can also be regarded as the various sources of goods necessary for human beings. Bio-diversity importance has been explained below.

a. Agricultural Production
Agricultural products such as rice, maize, wheat, green vegetables and fruits are the basic sources of food for human beings. Their source is agriculture is biodiversity. Plants are crops of various species such as rice, maize, fruits and green vegetables are found in Nepal. Such crops and plants were found in the forest in the beginning but human beings started to cultivate them as useful plant. They selected good seeds and their plants. Such activities resulted in development of crops and plants. These are the major sources of food for human beings.

b. Animal Production
The sources of production required for human beings such as milk, curd, ghee, meat and fish are available for the bio-diversity. Similarly, horses and camel are used to transport goods from one place to another. Dogs are kept for security of houses. Various raw materials such as bones, hair, wool and leather are available for the animals. People make clothes, cosmetic goods and other by using them. The raw materials essential for medicines and also available from animals, birds and plants. Such goods can be produced and distributed. These are the sources of the income.

c. Plant Production
Roots and fruits are also available from plants. These are the sources of raw materials for the timber industries. herbs, clothes, medicines, colors and paper.

d. Improvement in breed
People keep animals and birds for their uses. These also plant various types of vegetation. The production capacity of local species and immunity against disease can be improved through their use. Therefore, bio-diversity helps to improve the existing living beings of various places. Wild species can be used to breed the domestic animals and birds. Important plants should be identified through studies and research works and be preserved.


e. Soil Conservation
Various plants appear in different places. Large and small plants keep the particles of soil by pressing them. They protect soil erosion. Therefore, the physical condition of a place is distributed if the plants and the grasses are destroyed. The structure of land becomes weak and soil erosion and landslide can occur. Thus, bio-diversity helps to preserve land, soil and physical feature.

f. Watershed Conservation
The vegetation such as plants and grasslands help to conserve sources of water and watershed. The area of green belts is less evaporated and the water is collected in the land. Bio-diversity and sources of water and watershed areas are related to each other. One cannot exist in the absence of other. For examples, if sources of water are dry, there will be a loss in bio-diversity. Thus, biodiversity plays a significant role in the conservation and promotion of watershed areas.

g. Natural Beauty and Scenes
Bio-diversity makes environment and nature beautiful. Natural environment is created by plants, animals and birds, their size and types, colour, adaptation and responses. The habitat of animals and birds in the forest, their sound/noise and responses and life styles maintain natural beauty. Such beauty provides entertainment to men. There are a number of such places in the Himalayan, Hilly and the Terai regions of Nepal.



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Thursday, May 6, 2010

SOCIAL TRADITIONS OF NEPAL

Thursday, May 6, 2010

The geographical diversity with different climatic conditions and difficult transport and communication have resulted in the social and cultural diversity. The geography of a country has a big hand in developing diverse communities, castes, ethnic groups having different customs, traditions and beliefs.

People of different races, castes, ethnic groups and communities such as Brahman, Chhetri, Magar, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Tharu, Tamang, Sherpa, Thakali, Yadav, Rajbanshi, Dhimal and Muslim live in different parts of the country. Unity in diversity is another specially of the Nepalese culture and tradition. People of different ethnic groups have there own cultures, mother tongue, festivals, songs, dances, dresses, customs, rites and rituals.

Through there is diversity in culture, there is unity in traditions, social values and norms. For example, we (Nepali people) all share the common tradition of respecting the seniors, loving the juniors. We regard parents and teachers as God. We all welcome our guests. We respect all the religions equality. We are always ready to help each other when needed. Above all, we love our nation and nationhood.

Nepal is divided into three geographically regions.
a) Mountains Regions.
b) Hill Region and
c) Terai Region.

Different communities and ethnic groups having different language, religions, customs and traditions are living together. All these people share the common characteristics of love, peace and feeling of brotherhood and cooperation.

Here is a brief description of the social, religion and traditions of each geographical region.

Mountain region
People: Bhote, Sherpa, Thakali, Tamang, Gurung etc.
Occupation: Animal husbandly and dairy farming.
Food: Dhindo, Rice, Bread, Potato, Meat.
Dress: Bakkhu and Docha.
Religion: Buddhism.
Festival: Lhosar.

Hill region
People: Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Tamang.
Occupation: Agricultural and horticulture.
Food: Rice, Bread, Meat, Egg, Milk products.
Dress: Daura-Suruwal, coat and topi, Bhoto-kachhad and Patuka for men, Cholo-Fariya majetro for women.
Religion: Hinduism and Buddhism.
Festival: Janai Purnima, Dashain, Tihar, Shiva-ratri etc.

Terai Region
People: Tharu, Danuwar, Sunuwar, Dhimal, Rajpur, Sattar etc.
Occupation: Agriculture, Industry, Trade and Business
Food: Bread, Rice, Milk products
Dress: Dhoti-Kurta, Kamiz, Lungi, for men. Sari, Blouse for women.
Religion: Hinduism and Islam
Festival: Chhath, Raksha Bandhan, Holi, Diwali for Hindus. Id, Bakhrid, Muharram for Muslim.


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RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CHILDREN


Children should grow and develop all round–physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. For this, proper care and facilities should be provided to them. Children need food, clothing, shelter, health facilities, education, protection, entertainment and above all, freedom. All children have a claim for these things in a society. These are the basic rights of children.

Children can demand these things from their parents and elders. Most of the children are not aware of their rights. Hence, it is the responsibility of the adults to make them aware of their rights.

Children are tender are small. Children are dependent on the elders. The future of every child depends on the care, facilities and opportunities they get during their childhood. Therefore, if children do not get what they need, they cannot grow up to become worthy citizens of the country. In order to grow up properly, some basic needs are to be fulfilled as their right.

Some Right of Children
All the Children have the following rights:
  • Right to food.
  • Right to clothing.
  • Right to shelter.
  • Right to education.
  • Right to entertainment.
  • Right to good health and proper nourishment.
  • Right to name and country.

These are some of the rights. All these rights are called rights. It does not matter weather a child in rich or poor, has parents or in an orphan, is strong or weak, sick or healthy, all have the same rights.

Protection of Child Rights
An international conference held under the supervision of UNO in 1989 AD, concerning the child rights, passed the resolution to protect child rights. Nepal also signed the charter of the convection. The conference advocated the rights of children to name, to a country along with care from family, to good and health and proper nourishment. All these right are in fact, the basic necessities for survival. The conference also believed in a child right to lead his/her life as he/she wishes, getting an education, participating in sports and entertainment, etc. Children have the right to express their thoughts freely and independently.

It is the duty of every country to protect the rights of its children. Keeping this in mind, Nepal too passed a Bill on child rights in 2049 BS. There are some provisions in constitution regarding the child right, such as:
  • Provision of free education for all the children.
  • Special arrangements for the protection and promotion of children by the state.

There are many other agencies which are working for the protection of child rights. These organizations can be approached for help. For example, Nepal Children’s Organization helps the poor and orphans by providing food, shelter, education and health facilities. UNICEF is playing an important role in spreading awareness about the child rights. Similarly, ILO is working to abolish child labour.

Duties of Children
While children have rights, they also have certain duties to perform. Some of their duties are:
  • Respect their parents, teachers, elders and love youngsters.
  • Pay attention to personal hygiene.
  • Help people in need.
  • Sharing things with others.
  • Use polite language.
  • Study, play, eat and sleep at proper time.


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ROLE OF INDUSTIES IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


The industry which needs small amount of investment, small space to run and small number of labours is called the cottage (small scale) industry, or according to the definition of Industrial Enterprises Act, 2054 (emended), “the industries having a maximum of 30 million rupees of fixed deposit called small scale industries”. Such an industry mainly provides the employment opportunity to the people of the rural areas. It ensures use of leisure time, utilization of raw materials, utilization of labour and still and provides employment opportunity. Thus, it helps the economic progress. The industries which need large investment, skilled and semi-skilled human power and use of machine and tools and yield large scale production are called medium and large scale industries. According to Industrial Enterprises Act (amended), Industries having thirty million to one hundred million rupees as fixed capital are called medium scale-industries”. The role of medium and large scale industries is significant in bringing remarkable change for the economic progress of the country. Such industries produce goods needed for the nation. These productions fulfill the need of the nation. As a result, we don’t need to import goods from aboard. This types of arrangement saves currency. The saving can be used for industries and other sectors. Such industries help the development of agricultural sector. Similarly, they create employment opportunities, increase exports and mobilize resources and means. Therefore, medium and large scale industries have significantly contribution to the economic progress of a country.


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Tuesday, May 4, 2010

INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Tuesday, May 4, 2010



This is the age of industrialization. Only the development of industries can bring about changes in economic status of any country. There are some countries in the world showing quick pace of development. Those counties are called ‘Developed Countries’, like the USA, Japan, France, Germany, etc. All these counties are categorized as industrial countries.

Countries whose economy is based upon agriculture are called developing countries like the countries of Asia and Africa. Therefore, the measuring rod of the economic achievements of a country is its industries.

Nepal is predominantly an agricultural country and the development of industry is absolutely essential for its economic achievement. Thus, industry is next to agriculture which can contribute to making the economy strong and powerful.

The advantages of industries are as follows:
  • Proper use of the country’s means and resources.
  • Creates job opportunities.
  • Maximum production will enhance export and reduce import.
  • Helps to earn foreign currencies.
  • Development of infrastructure.
  • Increase in per capita income and bring improvement in the standard of living.
  • Helps to support the development of agricultural sector.
  • Country will become self-dependent.

In recent years, several industries have been established at different places, but, have not developed well due to various problems. The problems are as follows:
  • Lack of sufficient raw materials.
  • Lack of appropriate industrial policy.
  • Lack of capital.
  • Lack of skilled human resources.
  • Lack of market.
  • Lack of better means of transport and communication.
  • Lack of proper machinery and tools.

Solutions to the problems faced by industries:
  • Provision of market.
  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Availability of skilled manpower.
  • Preparation of appropriate industrial policy.
  • Provision of capital.
  • Facility of transport and communication.
  • Provision of storage.
  • Political stability and good governance.


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY


Many industries running in Nepal are based on agriculture. Such industries are dependent on the raw materials that come from agriculture sector. The examples are sugar industry from sugarcane, jute industry from jute, cotton factory from cotton, leather industry from animal skin, tea factory from tea leaves, etc. To run these industries, raw materials are made available from the agriculture sector.

Agriculture tools like spade, plough, etc are produced in the industries. Increased production in agriculture is made possible by the use of these tools. Other items including chemical fertilizers and insecticides are made available by industries. We can have increased agriculture production through appropriate use of agriculture tools, chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Similarly generator needed for irrigation is produced and supplied by industry. Therefore, there is mutual relationship between agriculture and industry. Agriculture and industry can be promoted through mutual relationship between these two. More than 80% of the people of Nepal are involved in agriculture. Over 50% of the national income and over 40% of national production comprise agriculture. So, it is necessary to develop more and more agro-based industries in Nepal. Agro-based industries utilize the raw materials available from agriculture like tea leaves, sugarcane, cotton, oil seeds, milk, etc. There are many such industries in Nepal. Agriculture and industries are like two sides of a coin. They are inter-dependent.

Agriculture provides agricultural raw materials to the industries and industries produce manufactured or finished products from those raw materials. Thus, we have seen that without agricultural raw materials, agro-based industries cannot run. The development of agro-based industries depends upon the availability of agricultural raw materials. The quality and quantity of agricultural raw materials also depend upon industries. In other words, agriculture also depends upon industry.

The development of agriculture depends upon industry because:
  • Industry produces agriculture tools plough, spade, thrasher, hoe, etc which help to make agricultural work and production more efficient and productive.
  • Chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides for agriculture are produced by industries. They protect the crops from diseases and help to grow in a better way.
  • Industry provides generators needed for irrigation in many of the places of Nepal.

Thus, there is a mutual relationship between agriculture and industry. In the absence of industry, agricultural production goes down and without agricultural production agro-based industry will have no meaning. One fulfils the needs and the other fulfils the demands of a nation. This harmony is the key to rapid economic development of Nepal.






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Sunday, May 2, 2010

GLIMPSE OF NEPAL

Sunday, May 2, 2010
  1. COUNTRY NAME ---------------------- : Nepal
  2. CAPITAL ------------------------------- : Kathmandu
  3. REGIONAL HEADQUARTER ----: Dhankuta, Kathmandu, Pokhara, Birendranagar and Dipayal
  4. AREA ----------------------------------- : 1,47,181 sq. km.
  5. POPULATION ----------------------- : 23,151,423 (2001)
  6. MALE --------------------------------- : 11,563,921
  7. FAMALE ------------------------------ : 11,587,502
  8. MAJOR CITIES -------------------- : Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Birgunj
  9. PER CAPITA (GNP) ------------------ : NRS. 18,852 / $ 246
  10. PER CAPITA (GDP) ----------------- : NRS. 18,083 / $ 236
  11. GEOGRAPHIC COVERAGE --------- : 885km. length (East to West), 193 km Width (North to South) average.
  12. LOCATION -------------------------- : Longitude 80°04 East to 88°12 East, Latitude 26°22 North to 30°27’ North.
  13. ADM. DIVISION -------------------- : 5 Development Regions, 14 Zone, 75 District, 58 Municipalities, 3913 VDCs
  14. HIGHEST POINT ------------------- : Mt. Everest (8,848 m.)
  15. LOWEST POINT -------------------- : Kechana Kawal (60 m.)
  16. LONGEST RIVER ------------------- : Karnali (507 km.)
  17. BIGGEST RIVER -------------------- : Saptakoshi (28140 sq. km.)
  18. BIGGEST LAKE --------------------- : Rara (Mahendra), Area: 10.8 sq.km., Depth: 167 m.
  19. LONGEST GLACIER ---------------- : Khumbu Valley (32 km.)
  20. LONGEST PITCH BRIDGE --------- : Mehuli Bridge (1130.08 m) Saptari
  21. OLDEST TEMPLE ------------------- : Swaymbhunath
  22. TALLEST TEMPLE ----------------- : Nyathpole Dewal
  23. MAXIMUM RAINFALL AREA ------ : Lumle (Kaski) > 5000 millimeter
  24. MINIMUM RAINFALL AREA ------ : Lho Manthang (Mustang) <25 millimeter
  25. OLDEST IDOL ----------------------- : Birupachha (Pasupatinath)

Area of Biggest Districts ----------- Area of Smallest Districts
Dolpa : 7889 sq km -------------------- Bhaktapur : 119 sq km
Humla : 5655 sq km ------------------- Lilitpur : 385 sq km
Taplejung : 3646 sq km ---------------- Kathmandu : 395 sq km
Gorkha : 3610 sq km ------------------- Parbat : 494 sq km



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CONTRUBUTION OF NEPAL IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING


Nepal has diplomatic relation with many countries of the world. Foreign policy plays an important role in making such relations. Nepal has adopted non-aligned foreign policy. It is based on the principle of Panchasheel. This principle advocates the respect of sovereignty among the countries, non-invasion, non-inteference, equality and peaceful co-existence. The polity of non-alignment means the polity of neutrality and not taking any side in international political conflicts and issues. There are many such countries which do not take the side of any group or bloc when international conflict takes place. Such countries have formed organization called the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). NAM was established in 1955. Nepal has been taking part in the NAM.

Nepal is peace loving country. As a member of United Nations Organization, Nepal has been helping the UNO in maintaining peace by sending its troops to UN Peace Keeping Force. The Nepalese Army and Nepal Police have been deployed in many conflicting areas of the world by the UNO as a peace keeping force. Nepalese troops played a vital role to maintain peace in Kosovo, Lebanon, Somalia, Congo, Sierra Leone, East Timor and so on.

Nepal has made a substantial contribution to the UN peace keeping operations since 1958 AD. The performance of Nepalese army in peace keeping operations has earned good reputation in the world. Nepal is also the active member of SAARC. It also participates in various international tournaments. Such games and sports help to develop mutual co-operation and international understanding.


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Friday, April 30, 2010

THE JUDICIARY BODY OF NEPAL

Friday, April 30, 2010

The judiciary is one of the most important organs of the government which gives equal justice to the people using the existing laws. The legislative formulates law, the executive executes the law whereas the judiciary interprets the law and punishes the law breakers. Judiciary is an authentic organ to interpret the constitution. Judiciary protects the fundamental rights of people and maintains the rule of law in the country. If there is competent legislative and executive in a country but the judiciary is not independent and impartial, the constitution cannot function. Democracy will be effective and successful where judiciary is powerful and impartial because judiciary is the protector of rights and interests of common citizens. In fact, judiciary is the soul of any political system in modern age. The concept of democratic state with rule of law will not be materialized without strong judicial system. The judiciary plays an important role to make Loktantra successful and prosperous. For this, the judiciary must be independent, impartial and competent.

There is the provision of judiciary in part 10 of the Interim Constitution of Nepal-2063. According to the article 100 of the constitution the judicial power of Nepal is exercised by the courts and judicial institutions. There are three types of court in Nepal. They are:
a. Supreme Court
b. Appellate Court
c. District Court

a. Supreme Court
Supreme Court is the highest court in the judicial system of Nepal. All the courts and judicial institutions except military court are under the Supreme Court. Supreme Court
is the court of Record in the sense that its decisions are recorded for perpetual memory and testimony. There are fifteen judges including Chief Justice in the Supreme Court. There is a provision of appointing other judges for temporary period if the number of cases is high.

Appointment: Chief Justice is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. Other judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.

Qualifications: The person who has worked as a judge in the Supreme Count at least three years is eligible for the appointment of the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court remain in their posts for six years from the date of their appointment and retire at the age of 65.

b. Appellate Court
There are 16 Appellate Courts in Nepal.

Appointment: The Chief judges and judge of the Appellate Court are appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.

Qualification: The person having the following qualifications are eligible for the appointment of a judge in the Appellate Court:
  1. Graduated in law and worked as the judge of District Court or worked at least for seven years as the first class gazette officer in judicial service or
  2. Graduate in law and at least ten year experience as senior advocate.
  3. At least ten years teaching experience in law, research or worked in any other field of judicial service.
  4. Nepali citizens.

c. District Court
There are 75 district courts, one in each district in Nepal. The judges of District Court are also appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council. A Nepal citizen who is graduated in law and has worked at least for three years as a gazette second class officer in judicial service or graduated in law and worked as an advocate at least for eight years is eligible for the appointment of the judge of the District Court.

Functions of the Judiciary
The Judiciary is an independent organ. Democracy becomes stronger if there is an impartial judiciary in the country. Everyone must obey the orders issued by that each judiciary whether it is a common person, organization, or government. The chief functions of the judiciary are:
• To give equal justice to the people.
• To protect people’s fundamental rights.
• To punish the guilty and save the innocent.
• To issue orders to the legislative and executive bodies for any breach of law.
• To interpret the constitution if there is any controversy.
• To suggest to the head of state on legal and constitutional matters.


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Thursday, April 29, 2010

THE EXECUTIVE BODY OF NEPAL

Thursday, April 29, 2010

The executive is the law implementing body of the state. The Council of Ministers or government is the executive body of a country. Executive makes programmes and policies and executes the law passed by the legislature. In a broad sense, executive means the supreme administrator of the country. there is a provision of executive in Part 5 of Interim Constitution of Nepal-2063. According to it, the executive power of Nepal is exercised by the Council of Ministers. The executive works of Nepal are carried out in the Government of Nepal.

Formation of Executive
The Prime Minister is appointed on the basis of political consent and in his chairmanship, the Council of Ministers is formed. According to the constitution, the functions of the government of Nepal are carried out in the spirit of people’s movement by political consent and culture of mutual understanding. The Prime Minister can appoint the Deputy Prime Minister, Ministers, State Ministers and Assistant Ministers from among the members of Legislative-Parliament on the recommendation of concerned political party. There is also the provision that according to political understanding, Prime Minister can appoint the person as the Deputy Prime-Minister, Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister who are not the members of Legislative-Parliament.

Power and Functions of the Executive
The function of executive is increasing day by day in this modern age. There is a lot of work that the executive has to perform. It is the duty of the e executive to maintain law and order in the country. Executive has to fulfil the basic needs of the people like food, shelter, clothing, education and health services. The following are the major functions of the executive:

  • To run the administration of the country efficiently and provide basic service to the people. Executive makes important appointments and transfers, and controls and supervises all civil and military departments and their subordinates.
  • To maintain law and order and protect the country from foreign invasion.
  • To impose taxes and run various development works.
  • To sign treaties and make good diplomatic relations, depute ambassadors to foreign countries.
  • To present the budget in the parliament and operate it after the approval of the parliament.
  • To summon, adjourn or postpone the session of the parliament.
  • To table the draft bill in the parliament for appropriate laws.


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THE LEGISLATIVE BODY OF NEPAL


There are three main organs of the government. They are: Legislative, Executive and Judiciary. These organs exercise different powers and functions. To run the country smoothly these bodies play a vital role. Parliament is the legislative body of the government. Legislative makes law. The country functions on the basis of these laws. The Council of Ministers or government is the executive body. Executive carries out these laws. Courts and other judicial institutions are judiciary. Judiciary ensures that everyone gets justice. Judiciary punishes the guilty when the laws are violated.

The legislative is the law making body of the country. To make law is the most important function of the state. The country functions under the laws made by the legislature. The legislative came as an organ of state in 18th and 19th century. In most of the countries the members of the legislative are elected by the people. Constituent assembly is working as thee legislature of Nepal at present. Legislative is composed of 601 members. Among them, 240 members are directly elected by the people from 240 constituencies. 335 members are elected through proportional basis and 26 members are nominated by the cabinet.

Power and Functions of the Legislative
  • All the bills are presented in the parliament. After passing the bills by the majority. After his approval, it becomes the law. In this way, all the laws are made in the parliament.
  • The legislative controls over the finance of the country. Legislative passes the annual budget according to which the government spends money in various tasks.
  • Legislative can raise questions to any work of the government. If the government does not work properly, legislative can withdraw its support and government is dissolved. In this way the legislative has control over the executive.
  • If the Chief Justice or any judge of the Supreme Court is found involved in misconduct or does not perform duties properly, two-thirds majority of the parliament can remove of such judge or Chief Justice. In this way, legislative controls the judiciary also.
  • Legislative can also amend the laws and constitution.

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SOCIAL ORGANIZATION FOR SOCAL SERVICE


The organizations involved in social service are called social service organizations. Many people have devoted their entire life for the service of mankind. The noble social service organizations in Nepal are:

PAROPAKAR SANSTHA
The world “Paropakar” means doing good service to others and “Sanstha” means an organization. Thus, ‘Paropakar Sanstha’ is a social service organization. This is the first and the oldest social organization of Nepal. It was founded by Dayabir Singh Kansakar in 2004 BS. He was born on 22nd Baishakh, 1968 BS.

Contributions
Primarily, Paropakar Sanstha was established to provide medicine facilities to the poor people suffering from Malaria, Dysentery, Cholera and Typhoid. After the advent of democracy in 2007 BS, the Paropakar Sanstha expanded its services in different sectors of social welfare.

Paropakar Sanstha established a boarding school for orphans and destitute children at Bhimsensthan, Kathmandu. Today, this boarding school is known by the name Paropakar Secondary School. Other social services provided by Paropakar Sanstha are:

  • Ambulance service in Kathmandu.
  • Blood donation programmes.
  • Donation departments have been set up in various parts of Nepal from where medicines are distributed free of cost.
  • First-aid centers at various places provide first-aid treatment to the poor and needy patients.
  • Festivals, Public fair, religious ceremonies like Shiva Patri, Krishnashtami, etc. are the occasions when this social organization plays an active part.
  • Prasuti Griha is the most remarkable contribution of Paropakar Shanstha. It is the maternity hospital situated at Thapathali, Kathmandu.

Dayabir Singh Kansakar, a great devoted social worker, died on 23rd of Magh 2057 BS in Kathmandu.

JAYCESS (JCI)
Jaycees was established in the city of St. Louis of Missouri, USA by Henry Giessehbier. In the beginning Jaycees name was Hercullanium Dance Club. Its main objectivities was to maintain the traditional dance. It was named as Junior Chamber International (JCI) in the year 1918 AD.
The main objective of Jaycees is “to provide contribution to the world community by developing leadership quality to youth and by promoting the feeling of universal brotherhood”. The youth between 18 to 40 years age can be member of Jaycees organization.



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HUMAN RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT


Development means a progressive change that occurs in people, family, community and the country as a whole. Imagine, how Nepali ancestors lived in the past and how they live today. It is very true to say that their life is much more easier and comfortable compared to that of their ancestors. This change is called development. If there was no development, their life would be similar to that of their ancestors. Thus, development is a dynamic process.

The most important element for the development of a country is human resources or human power. There are three types of human power. They are:
a. Unskilled,
b. Semi-skilled and
c. Skilled.

Every country requires skilled human power to develop. The key to skilled human power is quality education and training. Education adds other qualities in the person. Educated people are creative, responsible, cooperative, competent, self-reliant and rational. For development, a country needs human power in different fields, human power alone is not sufficient to develop the country. A country also needs the means and resources for its development. Only the skilled human power can make proper utilization of the available means and resources of a country. For example, in order to develop the health sector, we require skilled health workers, health assistants, lab assistants, pharmacologists, administrations etc. similarly, we required different kinds of human power for the development of different sectors like education, industry, tourism, transport, etc.

Following is a small list of human power related to various professions in Nepal.
Farmer----------Mason-----------Pilot------------Teacher------------Engineer
Manager---------Army------------Doctor-----------Lawyer--------------Labourer
Police------------Journalist-------Tailor------------Businessman--------Carpenter
Postman---------Driver-----------Barber-----------Civil Servant--------Chemist


It is very important for us to know that all types of works and important. All types of human power are equally important. A farmer is as important as a cobbler, and a doctor is as important as a tailor. The work of each profession is important as growing food, making shoes, looking after the sick and making clothes, etc. This is what is termed as ’dignity of labour’. In the absence of any one human power, our life would be difficult and a country cannot develop.

Every country should assess and make proper plan for the type and quantity of quality human power needed for its development.

Nepal is basically an agricultural country. There is vast scope to develop fishing industry, if there farmers are well-trained. Similarly, Nepal has lots of prospects to develop in tourism, horticultural and fruit farming. But we are still behind in such development activities due to the lack of skilled human power. Some sectors like farming, business, civil servants and labourers, have more human power while, the sectors like medicine, engineering, communication, have less human power. In some sectors there are human power more than we require. This has created the problem of unemployment. Development activities in some sectors is not running smoothly due to the lack of required human power. In Nepal, the problem of unemployment is increasing because of discrimination in works as high and low. People should feel that all work are equal and valuable. Development a country is possible only when all the people use their knowledge and skill and work honestly, creatively and efficient.

The government should make a long-term plan to prepare skilled human power. This is the age of science and technology. Countries that have advanced in science and technology are the most develop countries in the world. Thus, Nepal too, should aim at producing skilled, qualified human power in the field of science and technology to enhance and promote the rate of development. Only then, the development will be sustainable.


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Tuesday, April 27, 2010

DRINKING WATER PAST AND PRESENT IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Water is one of the most basic elements for all living beings on this earth. About 70% of the human body is made up of water. Human beings can live without food for some time but not without water. Water is used for various purposes, such as for cooking food, washing clothes, bathing, growing crops, construction work and for generating hydro-electricity. Water plays a vital role in the development of a country. If the citizens are healthy, development of a country will be rapid. Thus, government should make all the efforts to supply pure drinking water to its citizens.

Drinking Water in the Past
In the past, people used to drink water directly from the source. The first piped water for drinking purpose was launched in Kathmandu during the time of Bir Shumsher. Water was bought through pipes from Shivapuri area, in the north of Kathmandu and store in a reservoir in Maharajjung. At present, the reservoir is known by the name of “Pani Pokhari”. From the reservoir, water was piped out and supplied to different parts.

During the time of Bhim Shumsher, water was bought through pipes from Sangle Khola and store in the reservoir at Balaju. From here, water was piped out and supplied in various place. Later, the water used for generating hydro-electricity at Pharping was used for drinking as well.

In 1965, government laughed at water supplied project at Sundarijal. From the First Five Year Plan (1956-61), clean drinking water was supplied by making reservoirs. Drinking water cooperation was supply clean drinking water in various parts of the country. As a result, by 2001 AD, 52.5 % of people were able to enjoy this facility.

Drinking water at present
Nepal is rich in water resources. But, the rural and urban areas of hills and terai are facing the problem of water scarcity. “Water, water everywhere, but not a drop to drink”. In most of the remote and rural areas, people drink directly from the sources like rivers, spring, ponds etc. They need to walk long distance just a fetch a bucket of drinking water. These open sources of water was polluted and contaminated. These water sources dry of especially in winter. Such polluted water is the main cause for water-born diseases like dysentery, typhoid and cholera. Every year many infants, children and adults become victims of these diseases.

There is an acute problem of growing population in urban areas. The demands of drinking water in very high but difficult to fulfill. Most of water-pipes laid down during the time of Ranas have little or no maintenances. Due to the carelessness of the people, water goes waste as taps are let open event after use. People have to wake up early in the morning, and have to stand in the queue for long time just to get a bucket of water. Often people have to fulfil their needs by buying water from the private sector.

In the terai, most of the people have to depend upon tube well for the drinking water. Such water contains arsenic, causing skin disease. Thus the problem of drinking water is everywhere in Nepal.



S.N.-Sources of Drinking Water-No. Of Family/Household Using Water-Percentage
1. -- Tap or Piped water ----------------- 22,09,760 ------------------------ 52.93
2. -- Well or Pond -------------------------- 3,77,241 ------------------------ 9.10
3. -- Tubewell water ----------------------- 11,84,156 ----------------------- 28.37
4. -- Water from Spring -------------------- 2,67,180 ------------------------ 6.40
5. -- River/Stream ----------------------------- 61,400 ------------------------- 1.47
6. -- Water from other sources --------------- 37,232 ------------------------- 0.89
7. -- Unidentified ------------------------------- 37,489 ------------------------ 0.90
------- Total --------------------------------- 41,74,457 --------------------- 100
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058

Problems of drinking water
• Half of the total population are deprived of pure and safe drinking water.
• In the hilly areas the sources of water very far and limited.
• There is no sufficient water in urban areas.
• Diseases like dysentery, diarrhea, typhoid and cholera spread due to unsafe and polluted water.
• The water of terai suffer from skin diseases due to presence of arsenic in the tube well water.

Solution
• To conserve and clean the water resources.
• Use drinking water after purity test only.
• Making arrangement drinking water with the coordinating of government sector and local community.
• Use boiled and filtered water for drinking.
• Making provisions of fulfill the demands of drinking water in urban areas.
• Bring awareness among the people regarding the proper use of water without wasting it.




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Monday, April 26, 2010

ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND MAJOR HYDRO ELECTRICITY PROJECT OF NEPAL

Monday, April 26, 2010

Importance
Electricity plays a vital role in the modern world. The development of science and technology has made our lives easy and comfortable. This would not have been possible without electricity.

We use electricity for various domestic purposes. For example: refrigerator, fax, oven, heater, etc. Industries require machinery and other heavy tools to produce many manufactured goods. Electricity is a must to run these machinery and heavy tools.

Similarly, means of communication cannot develop without electricity. We cannot even think of computer or television without electricity. Without the means of communication the pace of human development will be very slow. At present the whole world is suffering from global pollution. If electricity is used to operate the vehicles, the air pollution will be controlled.

There are various sources of electricity. They are: water, petrol, diesel, solar energy, vapour, bio-gas and steam.

Electricity in Nepal
Nepal has huge potentiality of producing electricity. Nepal alone has about 6,000 big and small rivers. Being a mountainous country it is drained by many snow-fed swift flowing rivers. The rivers like Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali, Rapti, Bheri, Mahakali, etc have great potentiality of producing hydro-electricity.

If we could harness the potential water resources to produce hydro-electricity, there is no doubt that Nepal’s economy will definitely rise. Many places of Nepal, especially, the remote and rural areas are still in darkness. Wherever, the hydro-electricity is not possible, other resources to generate electricity must be utilized.

The bio-gas plant has become very popular among the villagers in rural areas especially for domestic use. Wind power has been utilized in Kagbeni (Mustand) to generate electricity. In urban area people use solar energy for solar heaters. Besides water, other sources of energy are not enough to run the industries and factories. In order to develop Nepal, hydro-power is the most reliable source of energy.

Hydro-power was generated for the fist time in Nepal in 1965 BS during the time of Chandra Shumsher. It had the capacity of 500 KW and was located near Pharping, south of Kathmandu. The second hydro-power station was established during the time of Juddha Shumsher at Sundarijal in the north of Kathmandu, having the capacity of 640 KW.

Nepal has the potentiality of producing 83000 MW of hydro-electricity. But, only 390 MW of electricity has been generated so far from 50 big and small electricity generating projects by the year 2057 BS.
The statistics of census 2058 shows that how many people of the country use electricity on the basis of types of lights they use are as follows:

S.No. - Types of Light ---------- Number of Family ----- Percentage
1. -- Electricity ------------------------------- 16,44,499 ----------------- 39.39
2. -- Kerosene Lamp ------------------------ 23,86,293 ----------------- 54.17
3. -- Bio Gas Light ------------------------------- 8,075 ------------------ 0.19
4. -- Other materials ---------------------------- 94,143 ------------------ 2.26
5. -- Unidentified ------------------------------- 41,446 ------------------- 0.99
---------- Total --------------------------------- 41,74,457 ------------------ 100
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058

Major Hydro Electricity Projects of Nepal (in KW)
S.NO. - Name of Station --- Installed Capacity (KW) --- Year of Completion in AD
1. -- Sundarijal ------------------------ 640 --------------------------------- 1935
2. -- Panauti ------------------------ 2,400 --------------------------------- 1965
3. -- Trisuli ------------------------ 24,000 --------------------------------- 1967
4. -- (Fewa) Pokhara ---------------- 1,088 --------------------------------- 1967
5. -- Sunkoshi ---------------------- 10,050 -------------------------------- 1979
6. -- Gandaki ----------------------- 15,000 -------------------------------- 1979
7. -- Kulekhani I -------------------- 60,000 ------------------------------- 1982
8. -- Tinau (Butwal) ------------------ 1,024 ------------------------------- 1978
9. -- Devighat ----------------------- 14,100 ------------------------------- 1983
10. - Pokhara (Seti) ------------------ 1,500 ------------------------------- 1985
11. - Kulekhani II ------------------- 32,000 ------------------------------- 1986
12. - Marsyangdi ------------------- 69,000 -------------------------------- 1989
13. - Aandhaikhola ------------------ 5,100 --------------------------------- 1991
14. - Tatopani Myagdi I ------------- 1,000 --------------------------------- 1991
15. - Tatopani Myagdi II ------------ 1,000 --------------------------------- 1995
16. - Jhimruk Pyuthan ------------- 12,300 --------------------------------- 1995
17. - Puwa Khola -------------------- 6,200 --------------------------------- 2000
18. - Khimti Khola ------------------ 6,000 --------------------------------- 2000
19. - Modi Khola ------------------- 14,800 --------------------------------- 2001
20. - Bhote Koshi ------------------ 36,000 --------------------------------- 2002
21. - Indrawati ---------------------- 7,500 --------------------------------- 2003
22. - Chilime ----------------------- 20,000 -------------------------------- 2003
23. - Kali Gandaki ‘A’ ------------- 1,44,000 -------------------------------- 2003
24. - Middle Marsyangdi ------------ 70,000 ------------------------------- 2008
---------------Source: Central Bureau of Statistics ----------------
The government has encouraged private companies to invest in hydro-power project to fulfil the growing demands.

Problems of Electricity in Nepal
a. Lack of capital to install electricity generators.
b. Lack of public awareness, leading to careless use and consumption.
c. Leakage and stealing.
d. Lack of technical manpower.
e. Lack of utilization for better purpose.
f. Unable to supply electricity to remote areas.

Solutions
a. To make the people aware of the use and saving of electricity.
b. To stop electricity leakages and stealing.
c. To generate more technical manpower.
d. To establish industries based on electricity.
e. To provide electricity in rural and remote areas.


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Friday, April 23, 2010

COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL

Friday, April 23, 2010

Importance of Communication

Communication is the means of transmitting news, views, ideas and opinions to the people. Communication has brought the people and the countries on the world close to one another. We can watch the people, places and their culture on the television. Internet, phone, fax, e-mail are easiest and quickest means to communicate with our family members, friends, and neighbours who are far away for us. The world shrunk due to the means of communication. Communication is one of the most important infrastructure of development. In other to develop any sector of our country, we required ideas and opinions of other people who are expect and specialized. This is not possible without communication.

If the communication is advanced and efficient, the transmissions of ideas and opinions will be quick and effectively which will help to carry out development activities successfully and efficiently.

Communication in the past

· The development of Communication has been very late in Nepal.

· Postal service was the oldest and traditional means of Communication, limited only in few district. The postal service was only for government purpose.

· Radio service was obstructed due to the present of hills and mountains. A very few people could listen to the radio.

· Formerly, telephone was used only in Kathmandu during the Rana regime. This services enjoyed by the limited number of people.

· The only newspaper published was Gorkhapatra. The newspaper was available only in a few places and among a handful of people. Majority of the people could not enjoy the facility of newspapers.

· Transportation was difficult and underdeveloped. Therefore, communication facility could not reach everywhere among the people.

Present State of Communication in Nepal

· Telephone services has been established in the headquarters of all 75 districts of the country.

· Telephone services is available in all urban areas and hundreds of villages.

· For the last few years mobile telephone service is in use in the main cities of the nation.

· Apart from Central Transmission Centre, Radio Nepal has 5 Regional Transmission centres in the regions.

· FM radio stations have been established in many cities like Kathmandu, Biratnagar, Itahari, Dhankuta, Chitwan, Pokhara, Hetauda, Birgunj, Surkhet, Dipayal, Dhangadhi, Mahendranagar, etc. FM stations belong to private sectors.

· There are 2743 national and local newspapers/journals (daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, three monthly, four monthly, half yearly and yearly). Among them 1500 are regularly published. (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058)

· Nepal Television broadcasts its programmes for 24 hours, Regional transmission began from Kohalpur Transmission through satellite began in the year 2057. This became viable from all parts of the country and from more than 16 countries of the Asia continent.

· Many Television channels like Channel Nepal, Kantipur Television, Sagarmatha Television, Image Channel, Avenues Television, etc are run by private sectors.

· There are modern means of communication like fax, e-mail and internet available particularly in the urban areas.

· Communication link is established with almost all countries of the world.


An essential means of development is communication. Communication is defined as the means of passing information, thought, ideas, instructions, knowledge, etc from person to person. There are various means of communication available in Nepal such as newspaper, radio, television, satellite telephone, telegram, fax, computer and internet. Nepal constitutions has provided right of information to every citizen.

Postal Services were started in 1880 AD. Letter, parcels, money order are sent through the post office. Nepali people can send and receive letters from different parts of Nepal and from all over the world.

Radio is another means of communication. Radio Nepal was established in 1951 AD. Radio is the cheapest means of communication. Its transmission center is in Singha Durbar. Radio broadcasts news in different languages. There are 24 FM radio stations in Nepal. Noted radio stations are:
Radio Nepal ------------------ Kathmandu
Kantipur FM ------------------ Kathmandu-Dhankuta
Hits FM ------------------------ Kathmandu
Annapurna FM ---------------- Pokhara
Koshi FM ---------------------- Biratnagar
Janaki FM ---------------------- Janakpur
Sagarmatha FM --------------- Lalitpur
Times FM ---------------------- Kathmandu
Classic FM --------------------- Kathmandu
Saptakoshi ---------------------- Biratnagar

Television is a very effective means of communication. Electricity is needed for it. Television telecasts news, views, advertisement and different programmes. Nepal Television was established in 1985 AD and it transmission station is at Singha Durbar. It is run by the government. Kantipur Television, Channel Nepal and Image Channel are providing their services. They are popular for providing independent news and views.
The Gorkhapatra is the first newspaper of Nepal. Gorkhapatra was established in 1901 AD. Some newspapers of Nepal are:
Daily : Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nepal Samacharpatra, The Himalayan Times, Rajdhani, The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu Post.
Weekly : Vimarsha, Chhalphal, Deshantar, Tarun, Samakalin, Jana Astha
Fortnightly : Himal, Nepal
Monthly : Madhupark, Kamana, Nari

Apart from these means of communications recently mobile (telephone), fax, wireless, telex, email, internet, films etc. are becoming popular in Nepal.


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Thursday, April 22, 2010

WAYS OF TRANSPORT AND ITS LOCATION WITH AREAS

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Importance of Transport

Transport is another important infrastructure of development. In fact, without transport, the development of other infrastructures like communication, education, industry, health, etc are not possible. Transport links people and places, enables the movement of raw materials to the factories, finished goods to the market, and promotes trade and business. A country having a good network of transport has rapid and harmonious development. All the developed countries of the world are well advanced in transport compared to the developing countries.


ROADWAYS

Nepal is a landlocked and mountainous country. Roadways are the prominent means of transportation. Railways and waterways are difficult due to steep landform. Airways are expensive to travel for common people.

Prior to 2007 BS, there were only 376 km of roads in Nepal. Now, there has been a considerable development in the construction of roads.

Zone------------------------------------Road

1. Mechi------------------------------------------------------1,075

2. Koshi-------------------------------------------------------1,189

3. Sagarmatha--------------------------------------------------725

4. Janakpur---------------------------------------------------1,320

5. Bagmati---------------------------------------------------- 2,307

6. Narayani--------------------------------------------------- 1,542

7. Gandaki------------------------------------------------------ 801

8. Lumbini --------------------------------------------------- 1,362

9. Dhawalagiri--------------------------------------------------- 73

10. Rapti-------------------------------------------------------- 806

11. Bheri-------------------------------------------------------- 891

12. Karnali----------------------------------------------------- None

13. Seti---------------------------------------------------------- 619

14. Mahakali--------------------------------------------------- 519

Total --------------------------------------------------13,223

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics.



The list of important highways and roads are given below:

S.N. -- Highways/Roads ------------ From ----------- To ------- Length (KM)

1. -- Mahendra Highways ---------------- Mechi ---------- Mahakali -------- 1,030

2. -- Tribhuwan Highways --------------- Kathmandu ---- Birgunj ------------ 189

3. -- Prithvi Highways -------------------- Naubise -------- Pokhara ---------- 173

4. -- Siddhartha Highways --------------- Sunauli --------- Pokhara ---------- 209

5. -- Araniko Highways ------------------ Bhaktapur ------ Kodari ------------ 114

6. -- Bhim Dutta Panta Highways ------ Dhangadi ------- Dadeldhura ------- 140

7. -- Ratna Highways --------------------- Nepalgunj ------ Surkhet ----------- 87

8. -- Madan-Ashrit Highways ----------- Mugling -------- Narayangadh -------- 36

9. -- Pushpalal Highways ---------------- Ramechhap ---- Lamosanghu --------- 130

10. - BP Koirala Highways -------------- Banepa --------- Bardibas -------------- 159

11. - Madan Bhandari Highways ------- Dharan ---------- Dhankuta ------------- 25

12. - Pasang Lhamu Highways --------- Kathmandu ----- Dhunche ------------- 117

13. - Dashrath Highways ---------------- Dadeldhura ----- Baitadi --------------- 175

14. - Bhupi Sherchan Highways -------- Pokhara -------- Baglung ---------------- 67

Major Problem in the Development of Roadways

· Mountain topography,

· Lack of capital,

· Lack of technical human power,

· Lack of public awareness,

· Unstable government,

· Lack of quality construction of roads.


Solutions

· Use of government and local resources,

· Ensure local participation,

· Raise public awareness,

· Proper use of means and resources,

· Give important to quality construction,

· Stop economic leakages.

Airways

Airways play a significant role where other means of transportation are not possible. Air transportation is very important for the development of national economy.

Air service started in Nepal in 2008 BS. Nepal Airlines cooperation (NAC) has a domestic as well as an international air service having flights to china, India, Dubai, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Japan etc. Besides NAC, there are many other airlines operating domestic as well as international flights. Domestic air service links Kathmandu with almost all the major towns of the country. There are many private airlines providing services to different parts of the country.

International Airlines having air services to Nepal and India Airlines, Jet Air ways, Biman Bangaladesh, Pakastan internationals Airlines, Thai Airlines, Gulf Air, Qatar Airways, Korean Air, China South Airlines, Druk Air (Royal Bhutan Airlines) Austrian Airlines, gulf Air, Saudi Arabian etc. Some Nepalese Private Airlines, Sita Air, Agni Air.

The development of air services promoted and enhances tourism, which in turn raises the economic condition of the country.


Railways

The construction of railways demands a plain landform whereas most parts of Nepal are full of steep hills and mountains. Only 17% of the total landform is plain in terai. The first railways service began in Nepal in 1985 BS. It was 50 KM long, running from Raxaul (India) to Amlekhgung (Nepal). It was called Nepal Government Railways (NGR). However, the service was discontinuous after the development of good roadways on the same route. The only railways lines which Nepal has at present in Nepal Janakpur Jaynagar Railway (NJJR). It was constructed in 1992 BS. It is 53 KM long. This railways service still exists.


Ropeways

Ropeways are very reliable means of transport, especially to carry load in the mountains areas.

The first ropeway service started in Nepal in 1986 BS from Dhursing to Matatirtha. But, it was operated for a short time only. There was one rope way from Hetauda to Kathmandu. Ropeways was built in 2002 BS. Hetauda to Kathmandu ropeways is not in operation now. Realizing its importance, the government is planning to install a ropeway from Surkhet to Jumla.

In the year 2055 BS, a private cable car service for pilgrims to visit the famous temple Manakamana has been launched from Kurintar (Chitwan) to Manakamana (Gorkha). This cable car covers the distance of 3.1 kilometer.


Waterways

Waterways are the least expensive means of transport in the world. Any countries that have access to any sea or the ocean are mostly developed.

There are about six-thousand big and small rivers in Nepal. In spite of having huge sources of water, why do we lag behind in waterways? The simple answer is, first, Nepal is full of steep hills and mountains, second, most of the rivers are swift flowing due to mountainous topography.

Rivers are mainly used for boating and rafting. Boating is done in Koshi, Narayani and southern part of Karnali river. Rivers Trisuli, Gandaki and Bhote Koshi are used for rafting. Both, boating and rafting, are the souces of tourist attraction. The government is planning to develop waterways from Ramdighat to Narayanghat and from Narayanghat to Bhainsalotan covering 185 kilometer in the near future.


Example:
Transport in Maya’s district
Maya Lame is from Manang district. Her district is not linked with road transport. She has not seen trucks, buses, motorcars and motorcycles in her district. But she had a chance to see an aeroplane when she visited her uncle’s home in Jomsom. People carry goods on their backs in villages and mountain belts. Horses, yaks and sheep are the only means of transport in her district. Maya has learnt many things about transport from her friend Prapti Yadav who lives in Janakpur.

Transport in Prapti Yadav’s district
Prapti Yadav is from Dhanusa district, Janakpur Dhum. Janakpur is one of the famous towns. There are many buses, trucks, motors and rickshaws on the road. There is an airport at Janakput. Janakpur-Jainagar railway passes from her town. Sometimes she goes to Jainagar by train to buy some goods. Last month, she visited her cousin sister in Kathmandu. Then she also traveled on cable car in Kurintar with her uncle, aunt and cousin sister. They don’t have sea. Hence they don’t have ships and can’t enjoy voyages. Nepal is a land-locked country.


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