Friday, April 30, 2010


Friday, April 30, 2010

The judiciary is one of the most important organs of the government which gives equal justice to the people using the existing laws. The legislative formulates law, the executive executes the law whereas the judiciary interprets the law and punishes the law breakers. Judiciary is an authentic organ to interpret the constitution. Judiciary protects the fundamental rights of people and maintains the rule of law in the country. If there is competent legislative and executive in a country but the judiciary is not independent and impartial, the constitution cannot function. Democracy will be effective and successful where judiciary is powerful and impartial because judiciary is the protector of rights and interests of common citizens. In fact, judiciary is the soul of any political system in modern age. The concept of democratic state with rule of law will not be materialized without strong judicial system. The judiciary plays an important role to make Loktantra successful and prosperous. For this, the judiciary must be independent, impartial and competent.

There is the provision of judiciary in part 10 of the Interim Constitution of Nepal-2063. According to the article 100 of the constitution the judicial power of Nepal is exercised by the courts and judicial institutions. There are three types of court in Nepal. They are:
a. Supreme Court
b. Appellate Court
c. District Court

a. Supreme Court
Supreme Court is the highest court in the judicial system of Nepal. All the courts and judicial institutions except military court are under the Supreme Court. Supreme Court
is the court of Record in the sense that its decisions are recorded for perpetual memory and testimony. There are fifteen judges including Chief Justice in the Supreme Court. There is a provision of appointing other judges for temporary period if the number of cases is high.

Appointment: Chief Justice is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. Other judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.

Qualifications: The person who has worked as a judge in the Supreme Count at least three years is eligible for the appointment of the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court remain in their posts for six years from the date of their appointment and retire at the age of 65.

b. Appellate Court
There are 16 Appellate Courts in Nepal.

Appointment: The Chief judges and judge of the Appellate Court are appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.

Qualification: The person having the following qualifications are eligible for the appointment of a judge in the Appellate Court:
  1. Graduated in law and worked as the judge of District Court or worked at least for seven years as the first class gazette officer in judicial service or
  2. Graduate in law and at least ten year experience as senior advocate.
  3. At least ten years teaching experience in law, research or worked in any other field of judicial service.
  4. Nepali citizens.

c. District Court
There are 75 district courts, one in each district in Nepal. The judges of District Court are also appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Judicial Council. A Nepal citizen who is graduated in law and has worked at least for three years as a gazette second class officer in judicial service or graduated in law and worked as an advocate at least for eight years is eligible for the appointment of the judge of the District Court.

Functions of the Judiciary
The Judiciary is an independent organ. Democracy becomes stronger if there is an impartial judiciary in the country. Everyone must obey the orders issued by that each judiciary whether it is a common person, organization, or government. The chief functions of the judiciary are:
• To give equal justice to the people.
• To protect people’s fundamental rights.
• To punish the guilty and save the innocent.
• To issue orders to the legislative and executive bodies for any breach of law.
• To interpret the constitution if there is any controversy.
• To suggest to the head of state on legal and constitutional matters.


Thursday, April 29, 2010


Thursday, April 29, 2010

The executive is the law implementing body of the state. The Council of Ministers or government is the executive body of a country. Executive makes programmes and policies and executes the law passed by the legislature. In a broad sense, executive means the supreme administrator of the country. there is a provision of executive in Part 5 of Interim Constitution of Nepal-2063. According to it, the executive power of Nepal is exercised by the Council of Ministers. The executive works of Nepal are carried out in the Government of Nepal.

Formation of Executive
The Prime Minister is appointed on the basis of political consent and in his chairmanship, the Council of Ministers is formed. According to the constitution, the functions of the government of Nepal are carried out in the spirit of people’s movement by political consent and culture of mutual understanding. The Prime Minister can appoint the Deputy Prime Minister, Ministers, State Ministers and Assistant Ministers from among the members of Legislative-Parliament on the recommendation of concerned political party. There is also the provision that according to political understanding, Prime Minister can appoint the person as the Deputy Prime-Minister, Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister who are not the members of Legislative-Parliament.

Power and Functions of the Executive
The function of executive is increasing day by day in this modern age. There is a lot of work that the executive has to perform. It is the duty of the e executive to maintain law and order in the country. Executive has to fulfil the basic needs of the people like food, shelter, clothing, education and health services. The following are the major functions of the executive:

  • To run the administration of the country efficiently and provide basic service to the people. Executive makes important appointments and transfers, and controls and supervises all civil and military departments and their subordinates.
  • To maintain law and order and protect the country from foreign invasion.
  • To impose taxes and run various development works.
  • To sign treaties and make good diplomatic relations, depute ambassadors to foreign countries.
  • To present the budget in the parliament and operate it after the approval of the parliament.
  • To summon, adjourn or postpone the session of the parliament.
  • To table the draft bill in the parliament for appropriate laws.



There are three main organs of the government. They are: Legislative, Executive and Judiciary. These organs exercise different powers and functions. To run the country smoothly these bodies play a vital role. Parliament is the legislative body of the government. Legislative makes law. The country functions on the basis of these laws. The Council of Ministers or government is the executive body. Executive carries out these laws. Courts and other judicial institutions are judiciary. Judiciary ensures that everyone gets justice. Judiciary punishes the guilty when the laws are violated.

The legislative is the law making body of the country. To make law is the most important function of the state. The country functions under the laws made by the legislature. The legislative came as an organ of state in 18th and 19th century. In most of the countries the members of the legislative are elected by the people. Constituent assembly is working as thee legislature of Nepal at present. Legislative is composed of 601 members. Among them, 240 members are directly elected by the people from 240 constituencies. 335 members are elected through proportional basis and 26 members are nominated by the cabinet.

Power and Functions of the Legislative
  • All the bills are presented in the parliament. After passing the bills by the majority. After his approval, it becomes the law. In this way, all the laws are made in the parliament.
  • The legislative controls over the finance of the country. Legislative passes the annual budget according to which the government spends money in various tasks.
  • Legislative can raise questions to any work of the government. If the government does not work properly, legislative can withdraw its support and government is dissolved. In this way the legislative has control over the executive.
  • If the Chief Justice or any judge of the Supreme Court is found involved in misconduct or does not perform duties properly, two-thirds majority of the parliament can remove of such judge or Chief Justice. In this way, legislative controls the judiciary also.
  • Legislative can also amend the laws and constitution.



The organizations involved in social service are called social service organizations. Many people have devoted their entire life for the service of mankind. The noble social service organizations in Nepal are:

The world “Paropakar” means doing good service to others and “Sanstha” means an organization. Thus, ‘Paropakar Sanstha’ is a social service organization. This is the first and the oldest social organization of Nepal. It was founded by Dayabir Singh Kansakar in 2004 BS. He was born on 22nd Baishakh, 1968 BS.

Primarily, Paropakar Sanstha was established to provide medicine facilities to the poor people suffering from Malaria, Dysentery, Cholera and Typhoid. After the advent of democracy in 2007 BS, the Paropakar Sanstha expanded its services in different sectors of social welfare.

Paropakar Sanstha established a boarding school for orphans and destitute children at Bhimsensthan, Kathmandu. Today, this boarding school is known by the name Paropakar Secondary School. Other social services provided by Paropakar Sanstha are:

  • Ambulance service in Kathmandu.
  • Blood donation programmes.
  • Donation departments have been set up in various parts of Nepal from where medicines are distributed free of cost.
  • First-aid centers at various places provide first-aid treatment to the poor and needy patients.
  • Festivals, Public fair, religious ceremonies like Shiva Patri, Krishnashtami, etc. are the occasions when this social organization plays an active part.
  • Prasuti Griha is the most remarkable contribution of Paropakar Shanstha. It is the maternity hospital situated at Thapathali, Kathmandu.

Dayabir Singh Kansakar, a great devoted social worker, died on 23rd of Magh 2057 BS in Kathmandu.

Jaycees was established in the city of St. Louis of Missouri, USA by Henry Giessehbier. In the beginning Jaycees name was Hercullanium Dance Club. Its main objectivities was to maintain the traditional dance. It was named as Junior Chamber International (JCI) in the year 1918 AD.
The main objective of Jaycees is “to provide contribution to the world community by developing leadership quality to youth and by promoting the feeling of universal brotherhood”. The youth between 18 to 40 years age can be member of Jaycees organization.



Development means a progressive change that occurs in people, family, community and the country as a whole. Imagine, how Nepali ancestors lived in the past and how they live today. It is very true to say that their life is much more easier and comfortable compared to that of their ancestors. This change is called development. If there was no development, their life would be similar to that of their ancestors. Thus, development is a dynamic process.

The most important element for the development of a country is human resources or human power. There are three types of human power. They are:
a. Unskilled,
b. Semi-skilled and
c. Skilled.

Every country requires skilled human power to develop. The key to skilled human power is quality education and training. Education adds other qualities in the person. Educated people are creative, responsible, cooperative, competent, self-reliant and rational. For development, a country needs human power in different fields, human power alone is not sufficient to develop the country. A country also needs the means and resources for its development. Only the skilled human power can make proper utilization of the available means and resources of a country. For example, in order to develop the health sector, we require skilled health workers, health assistants, lab assistants, pharmacologists, administrations etc. similarly, we required different kinds of human power for the development of different sectors like education, industry, tourism, transport, etc.

Following is a small list of human power related to various professions in Nepal.
Postman---------Driver-----------Barber-----------Civil Servant--------Chemist

It is very important for us to know that all types of works and important. All types of human power are equally important. A farmer is as important as a cobbler, and a doctor is as important as a tailor. The work of each profession is important as growing food, making shoes, looking after the sick and making clothes, etc. This is what is termed as ’dignity of labour’. In the absence of any one human power, our life would be difficult and a country cannot develop.

Every country should assess and make proper plan for the type and quantity of quality human power needed for its development.

Nepal is basically an agricultural country. There is vast scope to develop fishing industry, if there farmers are well-trained. Similarly, Nepal has lots of prospects to develop in tourism, horticultural and fruit farming. But we are still behind in such development activities due to the lack of skilled human power. Some sectors like farming, business, civil servants and labourers, have more human power while, the sectors like medicine, engineering, communication, have less human power. In some sectors there are human power more than we require. This has created the problem of unemployment. Development activities in some sectors is not running smoothly due to the lack of required human power. In Nepal, the problem of unemployment is increasing because of discrimination in works as high and low. People should feel that all work are equal and valuable. Development a country is possible only when all the people use their knowledge and skill and work honestly, creatively and efficient.

The government should make a long-term plan to prepare skilled human power. This is the age of science and technology. Countries that have advanced in science and technology are the most develop countries in the world. Thus, Nepal too, should aim at producing skilled, qualified human power in the field of science and technology to enhance and promote the rate of development. Only then, the development will be sustainable.


Tuesday, April 27, 2010


Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Water is one of the most basic elements for all living beings on this earth. About 70% of the human body is made up of water. Human beings can live without food for some time but not without water. Water is used for various purposes, such as for cooking food, washing clothes, bathing, growing crops, construction work and for generating hydro-electricity. Water plays a vital role in the development of a country. If the citizens are healthy, development of a country will be rapid. Thus, government should make all the efforts to supply pure drinking water to its citizens.

Drinking Water in the Past
In the past, people used to drink water directly from the source. The first piped water for drinking purpose was launched in Kathmandu during the time of Bir Shumsher. Water was bought through pipes from Shivapuri area, in the north of Kathmandu and store in a reservoir in Maharajjung. At present, the reservoir is known by the name of “Pani Pokhari”. From the reservoir, water was piped out and supplied to different parts.

During the time of Bhim Shumsher, water was bought through pipes from Sangle Khola and store in the reservoir at Balaju. From here, water was piped out and supplied in various place. Later, the water used for generating hydro-electricity at Pharping was used for drinking as well.

In 1965, government laughed at water supplied project at Sundarijal. From the First Five Year Plan (1956-61), clean drinking water was supplied by making reservoirs. Drinking water cooperation was supply clean drinking water in various parts of the country. As a result, by 2001 AD, 52.5 % of people were able to enjoy this facility.

Drinking water at present
Nepal is rich in water resources. But, the rural and urban areas of hills and terai are facing the problem of water scarcity. “Water, water everywhere, but not a drop to drink”. In most of the remote and rural areas, people drink directly from the sources like rivers, spring, ponds etc. They need to walk long distance just a fetch a bucket of drinking water. These open sources of water was polluted and contaminated. These water sources dry of especially in winter. Such polluted water is the main cause for water-born diseases like dysentery, typhoid and cholera. Every year many infants, children and adults become victims of these diseases.

There is an acute problem of growing population in urban areas. The demands of drinking water in very high but difficult to fulfill. Most of water-pipes laid down during the time of Ranas have little or no maintenances. Due to the carelessness of the people, water goes waste as taps are let open event after use. People have to wake up early in the morning, and have to stand in the queue for long time just to get a bucket of water. Often people have to fulfil their needs by buying water from the private sector.

In the terai, most of the people have to depend upon tube well for the drinking water. Such water contains arsenic, causing skin disease. Thus the problem of drinking water is everywhere in Nepal.

S.N.-Sources of Drinking Water-No. Of Family/Household Using Water-Percentage
1. -- Tap or Piped water ----------------- 22,09,760 ------------------------ 52.93
2. -- Well or Pond -------------------------- 3,77,241 ------------------------ 9.10
3. -- Tubewell water ----------------------- 11,84,156 ----------------------- 28.37
4. -- Water from Spring -------------------- 2,67,180 ------------------------ 6.40
5. -- River/Stream ----------------------------- 61,400 ------------------------- 1.47
6. -- Water from other sources --------------- 37,232 ------------------------- 0.89
7. -- Unidentified ------------------------------- 37,489 ------------------------ 0.90
------- Total --------------------------------- 41,74,457 --------------------- 100
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058

Problems of drinking water
• Half of the total population are deprived of pure and safe drinking water.
• In the hilly areas the sources of water very far and limited.
• There is no sufficient water in urban areas.
• Diseases like dysentery, diarrhea, typhoid and cholera spread due to unsafe and polluted water.
• The water of terai suffer from skin diseases due to presence of arsenic in the tube well water.

• To conserve and clean the water resources.
• Use drinking water after purity test only.
• Making arrangement drinking water with the coordinating of government sector and local community.
• Use boiled and filtered water for drinking.
• Making provisions of fulfill the demands of drinking water in urban areas.
• Bring awareness among the people regarding the proper use of water without wasting it.


Monday, April 26, 2010


Monday, April 26, 2010

Electricity plays a vital role in the modern world. The development of science and technology has made our lives easy and comfortable. This would not have been possible without electricity.

We use electricity for various domestic purposes. For example: refrigerator, fax, oven, heater, etc. Industries require machinery and other heavy tools to produce many manufactured goods. Electricity is a must to run these machinery and heavy tools.

Similarly, means of communication cannot develop without electricity. We cannot even think of computer or television without electricity. Without the means of communication the pace of human development will be very slow. At present the whole world is suffering from global pollution. If electricity is used to operate the vehicles, the air pollution will be controlled.

There are various sources of electricity. They are: water, petrol, diesel, solar energy, vapour, bio-gas and steam.

Electricity in Nepal
Nepal has huge potentiality of producing electricity. Nepal alone has about 6,000 big and small rivers. Being a mountainous country it is drained by many snow-fed swift flowing rivers. The rivers like Koshi, Gandaki, Karnali, Rapti, Bheri, Mahakali, etc have great potentiality of producing hydro-electricity.

If we could harness the potential water resources to produce hydro-electricity, there is no doubt that Nepal’s economy will definitely rise. Many places of Nepal, especially, the remote and rural areas are still in darkness. Wherever, the hydro-electricity is not possible, other resources to generate electricity must be utilized.

The bio-gas plant has become very popular among the villagers in rural areas especially for domestic use. Wind power has been utilized in Kagbeni (Mustand) to generate electricity. In urban area people use solar energy for solar heaters. Besides water, other sources of energy are not enough to run the industries and factories. In order to develop Nepal, hydro-power is the most reliable source of energy.

Hydro-power was generated for the fist time in Nepal in 1965 BS during the time of Chandra Shumsher. It had the capacity of 500 KW and was located near Pharping, south of Kathmandu. The second hydro-power station was established during the time of Juddha Shumsher at Sundarijal in the north of Kathmandu, having the capacity of 640 KW.

Nepal has the potentiality of producing 83000 MW of hydro-electricity. But, only 390 MW of electricity has been generated so far from 50 big and small electricity generating projects by the year 2057 BS.
The statistics of census 2058 shows that how many people of the country use electricity on the basis of types of lights they use are as follows:

S.No. - Types of Light ---------- Number of Family ----- Percentage
1. -- Electricity ------------------------------- 16,44,499 ----------------- 39.39
2. -- Kerosene Lamp ------------------------ 23,86,293 ----------------- 54.17
3. -- Bio Gas Light ------------------------------- 8,075 ------------------ 0.19
4. -- Other materials ---------------------------- 94,143 ------------------ 2.26
5. -- Unidentified ------------------------------- 41,446 ------------------- 0.99
---------- Total --------------------------------- 41,74,457 ------------------ 100
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058

Major Hydro Electricity Projects of Nepal (in KW)
S.NO. - Name of Station --- Installed Capacity (KW) --- Year of Completion in AD
1. -- Sundarijal ------------------------ 640 --------------------------------- 1935
2. -- Panauti ------------------------ 2,400 --------------------------------- 1965
3. -- Trisuli ------------------------ 24,000 --------------------------------- 1967
4. -- (Fewa) Pokhara ---------------- 1,088 --------------------------------- 1967
5. -- Sunkoshi ---------------------- 10,050 -------------------------------- 1979
6. -- Gandaki ----------------------- 15,000 -------------------------------- 1979
7. -- Kulekhani I -------------------- 60,000 ------------------------------- 1982
8. -- Tinau (Butwal) ------------------ 1,024 ------------------------------- 1978
9. -- Devighat ----------------------- 14,100 ------------------------------- 1983
10. - Pokhara (Seti) ------------------ 1,500 ------------------------------- 1985
11. - Kulekhani II ------------------- 32,000 ------------------------------- 1986
12. - Marsyangdi ------------------- 69,000 -------------------------------- 1989
13. - Aandhaikhola ------------------ 5,100 --------------------------------- 1991
14. - Tatopani Myagdi I ------------- 1,000 --------------------------------- 1991
15. - Tatopani Myagdi II ------------ 1,000 --------------------------------- 1995
16. - Jhimruk Pyuthan ------------- 12,300 --------------------------------- 1995
17. - Puwa Khola -------------------- 6,200 --------------------------------- 2000
18. - Khimti Khola ------------------ 6,000 --------------------------------- 2000
19. - Modi Khola ------------------- 14,800 --------------------------------- 2001
20. - Bhote Koshi ------------------ 36,000 --------------------------------- 2002
21. - Indrawati ---------------------- 7,500 --------------------------------- 2003
22. - Chilime ----------------------- 20,000 -------------------------------- 2003
23. - Kali Gandaki ‘A’ ------------- 1,44,000 -------------------------------- 2003
24. - Middle Marsyangdi ------------ 70,000 ------------------------------- 2008
---------------Source: Central Bureau of Statistics ----------------
The government has encouraged private companies to invest in hydro-power project to fulfil the growing demands.

Problems of Electricity in Nepal
a. Lack of capital to install electricity generators.
b. Lack of public awareness, leading to careless use and consumption.
c. Leakage and stealing.
d. Lack of technical manpower.
e. Lack of utilization for better purpose.
f. Unable to supply electricity to remote areas.

a. To make the people aware of the use and saving of electricity.
b. To stop electricity leakages and stealing.
c. To generate more technical manpower.
d. To establish industries based on electricity.
e. To provide electricity in rural and remote areas.


Friday, April 23, 2010


Friday, April 23, 2010

Importance of Communication

Communication is the means of transmitting news, views, ideas and opinions to the people. Communication has brought the people and the countries on the world close to one another. We can watch the people, places and their culture on the television. Internet, phone, fax, e-mail are easiest and quickest means to communicate with our family members, friends, and neighbours who are far away for us. The world shrunk due to the means of communication. Communication is one of the most important infrastructure of development. In other to develop any sector of our country, we required ideas and opinions of other people who are expect and specialized. This is not possible without communication.

If the communication is advanced and efficient, the transmissions of ideas and opinions will be quick and effectively which will help to carry out development activities successfully and efficiently.

Communication in the past

· The development of Communication has been very late in Nepal.

· Postal service was the oldest and traditional means of Communication, limited only in few district. The postal service was only for government purpose.

· Radio service was obstructed due to the present of hills and mountains. A very few people could listen to the radio.

· Formerly, telephone was used only in Kathmandu during the Rana regime. This services enjoyed by the limited number of people.

· The only newspaper published was Gorkhapatra. The newspaper was available only in a few places and among a handful of people. Majority of the people could not enjoy the facility of newspapers.

· Transportation was difficult and underdeveloped. Therefore, communication facility could not reach everywhere among the people.

Present State of Communication in Nepal

· Telephone services has been established in the headquarters of all 75 districts of the country.

· Telephone services is available in all urban areas and hundreds of villages.

· For the last few years mobile telephone service is in use in the main cities of the nation.

· Apart from Central Transmission Centre, Radio Nepal has 5 Regional Transmission centres in the regions.

· FM radio stations have been established in many cities like Kathmandu, Biratnagar, Itahari, Dhankuta, Chitwan, Pokhara, Hetauda, Birgunj, Surkhet, Dipayal, Dhangadhi, Mahendranagar, etc. FM stations belong to private sectors.

· There are 2743 national and local newspapers/journals (daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, three monthly, four monthly, half yearly and yearly). Among them 1500 are regularly published. (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2058)

· Nepal Television broadcasts its programmes for 24 hours, Regional transmission began from Kohalpur Transmission through satellite began in the year 2057. This became viable from all parts of the country and from more than 16 countries of the Asia continent.

· Many Television channels like Channel Nepal, Kantipur Television, Sagarmatha Television, Image Channel, Avenues Television, etc are run by private sectors.

· There are modern means of communication like fax, e-mail and internet available particularly in the urban areas.

· Communication link is established with almost all countries of the world.

An essential means of development is communication. Communication is defined as the means of passing information, thought, ideas, instructions, knowledge, etc from person to person. There are various means of communication available in Nepal such as newspaper, radio, television, satellite telephone, telegram, fax, computer and internet. Nepal constitutions has provided right of information to every citizen.

Postal Services were started in 1880 AD. Letter, parcels, money order are sent through the post office. Nepali people can send and receive letters from different parts of Nepal and from all over the world.

Radio is another means of communication. Radio Nepal was established in 1951 AD. Radio is the cheapest means of communication. Its transmission center is in Singha Durbar. Radio broadcasts news in different languages. There are 24 FM radio stations in Nepal. Noted radio stations are:
Radio Nepal ------------------ Kathmandu
Kantipur FM ------------------ Kathmandu-Dhankuta
Hits FM ------------------------ Kathmandu
Annapurna FM ---------------- Pokhara
Koshi FM ---------------------- Biratnagar
Janaki FM ---------------------- Janakpur
Sagarmatha FM --------------- Lalitpur
Times FM ---------------------- Kathmandu
Classic FM --------------------- Kathmandu
Saptakoshi ---------------------- Biratnagar

Television is a very effective means of communication. Electricity is needed for it. Television telecasts news, views, advertisement and different programmes. Nepal Television was established in 1985 AD and it transmission station is at Singha Durbar. It is run by the government. Kantipur Television, Channel Nepal and Image Channel are providing their services. They are popular for providing independent news and views.
The Gorkhapatra is the first newspaper of Nepal. Gorkhapatra was established in 1901 AD. Some newspapers of Nepal are:
Daily : Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nepal Samacharpatra, The Himalayan Times, Rajdhani, The Rising Nepal, The Kathmandu Post.
Weekly : Vimarsha, Chhalphal, Deshantar, Tarun, Samakalin, Jana Astha
Fortnightly : Himal, Nepal
Monthly : Madhupark, Kamana, Nari

Apart from these means of communications recently mobile (telephone), fax, wireless, telex, email, internet, films etc. are becoming popular in Nepal.


Thursday, April 22, 2010


Thursday, April 22, 2010

Importance of Transport

Transport is another important infrastructure of development. In fact, without transport, the development of other infrastructures like communication, education, industry, health, etc are not possible. Transport links people and places, enables the movement of raw materials to the factories, finished goods to the market, and promotes trade and business. A country having a good network of transport has rapid and harmonious development. All the developed countries of the world are well advanced in transport compared to the developing countries.


Nepal is a landlocked and mountainous country. Roadways are the prominent means of transportation. Railways and waterways are difficult due to steep landform. Airways are expensive to travel for common people.

Prior to 2007 BS, there were only 376 km of roads in Nepal. Now, there has been a considerable development in the construction of roads.


1. Mechi------------------------------------------------------1,075

2. Koshi-------------------------------------------------------1,189

3. Sagarmatha--------------------------------------------------725

4. Janakpur---------------------------------------------------1,320

5. Bagmati---------------------------------------------------- 2,307

6. Narayani--------------------------------------------------- 1,542

7. Gandaki------------------------------------------------------ 801

8. Lumbini --------------------------------------------------- 1,362

9. Dhawalagiri--------------------------------------------------- 73

10. Rapti-------------------------------------------------------- 806

11. Bheri-------------------------------------------------------- 891

12. Karnali----------------------------------------------------- None

13. Seti---------------------------------------------------------- 619

14. Mahakali--------------------------------------------------- 519

Total --------------------------------------------------13,223

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics.

The list of important highways and roads are given below:

S.N. -- Highways/Roads ------------ From ----------- To ------- Length (KM)

1. -- Mahendra Highways ---------------- Mechi ---------- Mahakali -------- 1,030

2. -- Tribhuwan Highways --------------- Kathmandu ---- Birgunj ------------ 189

3. -- Prithvi Highways -------------------- Naubise -------- Pokhara ---------- 173

4. -- Siddhartha Highways --------------- Sunauli --------- Pokhara ---------- 209

5. -- Araniko Highways ------------------ Bhaktapur ------ Kodari ------------ 114

6. -- Bhim Dutta Panta Highways ------ Dhangadi ------- Dadeldhura ------- 140

7. -- Ratna Highways --------------------- Nepalgunj ------ Surkhet ----------- 87

8. -- Madan-Ashrit Highways ----------- Mugling -------- Narayangadh -------- 36

9. -- Pushpalal Highways ---------------- Ramechhap ---- Lamosanghu --------- 130

10. - BP Koirala Highways -------------- Banepa --------- Bardibas -------------- 159

11. - Madan Bhandari Highways ------- Dharan ---------- Dhankuta ------------- 25

12. - Pasang Lhamu Highways --------- Kathmandu ----- Dhunche ------------- 117

13. - Dashrath Highways ---------------- Dadeldhura ----- Baitadi --------------- 175

14. - Bhupi Sherchan Highways -------- Pokhara -------- Baglung ---------------- 67

Major Problem in the Development of Roadways

· Mountain topography,

· Lack of capital,

· Lack of technical human power,

· Lack of public awareness,

· Unstable government,

· Lack of quality construction of roads.


· Use of government and local resources,

· Ensure local participation,

· Raise public awareness,

· Proper use of means and resources,

· Give important to quality construction,

· Stop economic leakages.


Airways play a significant role where other means of transportation are not possible. Air transportation is very important for the development of national economy.

Air service started in Nepal in 2008 BS. Nepal Airlines cooperation (NAC) has a domestic as well as an international air service having flights to china, India, Dubai, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Japan etc. Besides NAC, there are many other airlines operating domestic as well as international flights. Domestic air service links Kathmandu with almost all the major towns of the country. There are many private airlines providing services to different parts of the country.

International Airlines having air services to Nepal and India Airlines, Jet Air ways, Biman Bangaladesh, Pakastan internationals Airlines, Thai Airlines, Gulf Air, Qatar Airways, Korean Air, China South Airlines, Druk Air (Royal Bhutan Airlines) Austrian Airlines, gulf Air, Saudi Arabian etc. Some Nepalese Private Airlines, Sita Air, Agni Air.

The development of air services promoted and enhances tourism, which in turn raises the economic condition of the country.


The construction of railways demands a plain landform whereas most parts of Nepal are full of steep hills and mountains. Only 17% of the total landform is plain in terai. The first railways service began in Nepal in 1985 BS. It was 50 KM long, running from Raxaul (India) to Amlekhgung (Nepal). It was called Nepal Government Railways (NGR). However, the service was discontinuous after the development of good roadways on the same route. The only railways lines which Nepal has at present in Nepal Janakpur Jaynagar Railway (NJJR). It was constructed in 1992 BS. It is 53 KM long. This railways service still exists.


Ropeways are very reliable means of transport, especially to carry load in the mountains areas.

The first ropeway service started in Nepal in 1986 BS from Dhursing to Matatirtha. But, it was operated for a short time only. There was one rope way from Hetauda to Kathmandu. Ropeways was built in 2002 BS. Hetauda to Kathmandu ropeways is not in operation now. Realizing its importance, the government is planning to install a ropeway from Surkhet to Jumla.

In the year 2055 BS, a private cable car service for pilgrims to visit the famous temple Manakamana has been launched from Kurintar (Chitwan) to Manakamana (Gorkha). This cable car covers the distance of 3.1 kilometer.


Waterways are the least expensive means of transport in the world. Any countries that have access to any sea or the ocean are mostly developed.

There are about six-thousand big and small rivers in Nepal. In spite of having huge sources of water, why do we lag behind in waterways? The simple answer is, first, Nepal is full of steep hills and mountains, second, most of the rivers are swift flowing due to mountainous topography.

Rivers are mainly used for boating and rafting. Boating is done in Koshi, Narayani and southern part of Karnali river. Rivers Trisuli, Gandaki and Bhote Koshi are used for rafting. Both, boating and rafting, are the souces of tourist attraction. The government is planning to develop waterways from Ramdighat to Narayanghat and from Narayanghat to Bhainsalotan covering 185 kilometer in the near future.

Transport in Maya’s district
Maya Lame is from Manang district. Her district is not linked with road transport. She has not seen trucks, buses, motorcars and motorcycles in her district. But she had a chance to see an aeroplane when she visited her uncle’s home in Jomsom. People carry goods on their backs in villages and mountain belts. Horses, yaks and sheep are the only means of transport in her district. Maya has learnt many things about transport from her friend Prapti Yadav who lives in Janakpur.

Transport in Prapti Yadav’s district
Prapti Yadav is from Dhanusa district, Janakpur Dhum. Janakpur is one of the famous towns. There are many buses, trucks, motors and rickshaws on the road. There is an airport at Janakput. Janakpur-Jainagar railway passes from her town. Sometimes she goes to Jainagar by train to buy some goods. Last month, she visited her cousin sister in Kathmandu. Then she also traveled on cable car in Kurintar with her uncle, aunt and cousin sister. They don’t have sea. Hence they don’t have ships and can’t enjoy voyages. Nepal is a land-locked country.


Wednesday, April 21, 2010


Wednesday, April 21, 2010

The literary meaning of health is the state of being physically and mentally fit. Health is considered as another most important infrastructure of development. Even the educated people need to be healthy in order to study and work and to be happy.

“A sound mind in a sound body” should be the motto of a happy life. It is indeed true that only a person with a sound mind and a sound body can think and act rationally. Education without good health is meaningless and worthless. Only the healthy human power can lead the country to the path of development by utilizing their power of knowledge and creativity.

Every country requires healthy human resources. Health of the people depends upon the availability of health services.

Health Services in the Past
Before 2007 BS, there were limited health services. The population was limited and the environment was clean and pollution free. The people of that time were healthy. They ate fresh and hygienic food. They were immune to many kinds of diseases. They hardly fell sick. They depended on Ayurvedic medicines. Bir Hostpital is the oldest hospital of the country of Nepal. It was established in 1947 BS, by Prime Minister Bir Shumsher.

Health Services at Present
At present, Nepal is facing the problems of population growth and environmental pollution. Health facilities are inadequate for the growing population. Majority of the people are suffering from poverty and illiteracy. They have poor idea of health and sanitation. There is high infant, child and maternal death rate. Infants and children suffer from polio, tuberculosis, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, encephalitis, etc. Many die due to the lack of maternal care.

• There are not enough hospitals, health posts and health centres specially in the remote areas.
• Medical treatment and facilities are not available as required.
• Doctors and health workers hesitate to go to remote areas.
• Rural people mostly rely on witch doctors or Dhami-Jhankri.
• People in remote and rural areas themselves are less interested to get treatment in hospitals or health posts.
• Private hospitals in urban areas are too expensive for common people.
• Government hospitals are not well-equipped and service-oriented.

1. Provision should be made to establish well-facilitated hospitals and health posts in remote areas.
2. Medicines and medical equipment must be made available when required.
3. The doctors and health workers should be encourage to go to remote areas with good incentives.
4. Programmes should be conducted to raise public awareness about medical treatment, health and sanitation.
5. Health sectors should not be commercial.
6. Government hospitals should be well-equipped and service oriented so that maximum people can benefit.

1. Hospitals--------------------------------------83.
2. Health Posts----------------------------------700.
3. Health Centres-------------------------------10.
4. Primary Health Centres---------------------180.
5. Doctors-------------------------------------5415.
6. Nurses--------------------------------------9146.
7. Health assistants----------------------------5259.
8. Ayurvedic service centres-------------------287.
9. Health Workers----------------------------3190.
Source: Health Ministry, Central Bureau of Statistics

Policy and Effort in Health Services
The government of Nepal has set up Ministry of Health to formulate plans and policies to maintain and promote better health of the people.

Tribhuwan Uneversity (TU) has a Teaching Hospital in Maharajgunj. TU also runs an Ayurvedic college in Kathmandu.

The government has also given approval and recognition to different medical colleges run under BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences and Kathmandu University.

Besides, there are many specialized hospitals such as eye hospitals, dental hospitals, etc.

Along with the efforts made by the government, many international agencies like WHO, UNICEF, UMN, INF, etc are giving valuable services to our country in the medical field. Several NGOs, INGOs, associations, and clubs are providing voluntary services to promote the health sector.

Gopal Shrestha is a student of class 7 in Mahendra Secondary School. He has visited a health post of his village and brought the following facts about it.
1. Name of the health post: Janak Health Post, Hadikhola
2. Date of establishment: 2047 B.S.
3. Working Days: Sunday to Friday (10a.m to 3p.m.)
4. Number of Staff: Emergency service available on Saturday.

Post ----------------------------- No.
Chief ---------------------------- 1
Assistant Health Worker ----- 3
A.N.M. -------------------------- 2
Social Health Worker --------- 4
Sudeni --------------------------- 2
Peon ----------------------------- 2
Total ---------------------------- 14

5. The following services are available:
i. All types of vaccinations for children
ii. Dressing of wound and sores.
iii. Treatment for stomachache, fever and headache.
iv. Treatment for diarrhea and dysentery.
v. Treatment for hookworm, tapeworm, roundworm especially for children.
vi. Services for family planning.

6. Services free of Charges:
i. All vaccines for infants and children.
ii. Temporary means of family planning.
iii. Medicines for fever, headache stomach ache etc.
iv. Medicine for leprosy.
v. Jeevan Jal, Vitamin ‘A’ capsule.
vi. Bulletins related to health education.



Introduction of Education
Development of a community and a nation as a whole depends upon its infrastructure. Infrastructure is considered as the pillar of development. Infrastructure refers to essential factors needed for development like education, health facilities, transport, communication, etc.
Who is responsible to develop these infrastructures? The simple answer is quality human resources that is quality human resources that are skilled and trained in their professions, like teachers, doctors, engineers, mechanic, lawyers, etc. what can provide such skilled human resources? Only education can provide such skilled quality human resources. Education can make citizens aware, conscious, intelligent, creative, responsible, independent and hard working. Such human qualities can utilize the means and resources of the country for development. Such quality human resources can bring about positive social changes and promote economic development of a country. The countries of the world are categorized into two groups: developed and developing, based on the level of development. The most important measuring rod for development is ‘Education’. Thus, the development of any country depends upon infrastructure like education.

In the earlier days there were no formal institutions like schools and colleges to impart education. Education was imparted in religious institutions like Ashram, Monastery, Church and Madarsa. Pupils learnt about the holy scripts, and religious rites and rituals from their teachers. The medium of education was Sanskrit.

Dawn of Modern Education
Junga Bahadur Rana initiated English education after his visit to the European countries. He established English school in 1910 BS at Thapathali only for his family. Later, the school was shifted to the western side of Ranipokhari by Prime Minister Bir Shumsher. It was named Durbar High School. Today, it is called Bhanubhakta Secondary School.

Balguru Khadananda was the pioneer to establish Sanskrit School at Dingla, Bhojpur in 1932 BS. Two years later, in 1934 BS, Ranodip Singh established another Sanskrit school in Kathmandu.

In 1958 BS, Prime Minister Dev Shumsher established about a hundred schools within and outside the Kathmandu valley. In 1975 BS, Prime Minister Chandra Shumsher established the first college in Kathmandu valley, in the name of the then King Tribhuvan and on his own name and called it Tri-Chandra College. His son-in-law, king of Bajhang, Jay Prithvi Bahadur Singh published various books for school children and civil servants.

The year 1990 BS is considered as a landmark in education in Nepal, with the establishment of the SLC Board.

The wave of education spread throughout the country with the advent of democracy in 2007 BS. The government and the people became more aware of the importance of education. At that time, the literacy rate of Nepal was about two percent only. The government formulated plans to educate people. Nowadays, the education sector is developing rapidly due to involvement of private sectors in imparting quality education.

Important Phases of Educational Development in Nepal:
1. 1910 BS : Establishment of Durbar High School
2. 1932 BS : Establishment of Sanskrit School at Dingla, Bhojpur
3. 1958 BS : Beginning of Language Schools
4. 1975 BS : Establishment of Tri-Chandra College
5. 1990 BS : Establishment of the SLC Board
6. 2028 BS : Implementation of National Education System Plan
7. 2038 BS : Curriculum Implementation Plan
8. 2049 BS : Report of National Education Commission
9. 2055 BS : Report of High level National Education Commission

Utility of Education
i. To gain Knowledge
ii. To gain skills
iii. To get better job
iv. To be able to change the society
v. To develop social awareness
vi. To have a good social status
vii. To help conserve the national and public properties
viii. To be a good citizen of a country
ix. To be able to make wise decision

No. of Primary Schools in Nepal ----------- 25,927
No. of Secondary Schools in Nepal ---------- 4,450
Source: Education Bulletin 2063

1. Dali’s Village
Dali Gurung is from Parsa VDC. There are three primary schools and one secondary school in her village. Many people have passed S.L.C from that school. A few are under S.L.C. Still they have taken some training and developed their skills. All are busy in her village. Some have returned after completing their higher education. They are qualified manpower working in schools, health post, post office, banks, industries and social services. People are very co-operative. They are united and work together to construct roads, to preserve public property and even clean the village. Every home has the facility of clean drinking water. People immediately go to health post if they become sick. Her village is alcohol free zone. So people do not take wine and quarrel with each other. Everybody is happy there. There is religious tolerance among people. People do not fight for the sake of religion. They respect each other. Her village is near the preservation of forest. They are very conscious about the forest. People say Dali’s village is just like a heaven.

2. Dilamaya’s Village
Dilamaya is from Bharta village. Her village is in the remote area of Nepal. Unfortunately, there is no school in her village. Most of the people are illiterate. A few are educated, but they live outside the village. Many people are unemployed and spend their time uselessly by drinking wine and gambling. They quite often quarrel with each other. They have no courtesy and good conduct. They always use vulgar words and are very unfriendly with outsiders. The whole village is full of solid waste. Because of the unhealthy environment, people often get sick. They do not like to visit doctors. They prefer to visit witch doctors. Children suffer from diarrhea and dysentery because of impure drinking water. There is a lack of co-operation among people. They fight with each other in the name of religion. Development work is also lagging behind due to the lack of education. People use the roadside and surrounding areas for toilet. There is no electricity in that village. People are below the poverty line. Production of crops is very low.


Monday, April 12, 2010


Monday, April 12, 2010
Challenges and opportunities

Although the attraction for foreign employment is increasing everyday, employment is not safe, secured and managed well. Skilled and trained manpower appropriate to the nature and requirement of foreign demand are not available. So, people are going to foreign countries as unskilled or semi-skilled work force. Because of this, foreign countries are getting on one hand cheap labor and on the other Nepalese working abroad are not getting rights and honorable jobs. This has compelled Nepalese people to sell their labour at a throw away price whereas they have to invest a lot of money.

Foreign Employment Act 2064 has clearly made a legal provision for sending Nepalese for foreign employment. But, this act is not correctly implemented. Various foreign employment services are in operation without government permission. Brokers are taking advantage of the simple and innocent people and cheating them badly. It is a pity that even those who have gone through resistered agencies and also having required skill, training and knowledge are not getting good jobs and salary. Not only this, there are many instances when such labour forces have returned prematurely not having required qualifications, ability, skills and knowledge suitable for these jobs offered. This is indeed a big and serious challenge.

There is a need of legal, technical and professional training for these people so that they can meet the challenges and can take benefit of the advantages of the opportunities available in the market. Technically trained, skilled and competent people can compete with others and secure right jobs, which fetch them good salary. There is also need of providing them accidental and life insurance to make their life more secured. The demand for Nepalese workers is increasing greatly. The Three Year Interim Plan has provision to have labour contract with those countries where there are a large number of Nepalese working. This indicates that the opportunities for employment are increasing day by day.

According to the government reports, more than one billion rupees remittances are earned every year from foreign employment. This has largely contributed to national economy. Many factories and industries are established from such money which helps in generating local employment and revenues. However, continuous fleeing of trained and skilled human power would adversely affect in their own economic development. They should gradually bring down the number of out going labour force. The country’s development is own development. It is a fact that one gets due respect only when his own country is developed. Those Nepalese working in other countries as Bahadur and Kanchhas are giving their sweat and blood for the development of other countries. Whereas it is sad to say that Nepal remains always poor, underdeveloped and backward. For this, they (Nepalese) have to get appropriate training, knowledge, skills and contribute to their own economic development. We should love our own country and foster patriotic feeling among us. On this lies our over all welfare and well being.



SOS (Save Our Soul)

SOS is an international social organization. After the Second World War thousand of children became orphans in Europe. To look after them, Dr.Hermann Gmeiner, a professor from Austria had opened a children’s village in Austria in 1949 AD. Now such villages are established in more than 133 countries of the world.

SOS Children Village was established for the first time in Nepal in 2028 BS at Sano Thimi, Bhaktapur. SOS organization provides shelter and education to the orphans, homeless and needy children in homely environment with love and care. There are SOS Villages in Sano, Thimi (Bhaktapur), Koteshwor, Itahari, Pokhara, Surkhet, Chitwan, Banepa, etc.

There are a number of houses in each SOS village. A limited number of children live in each house. An elderly lady looks after the children like a mother. The elder children look after the younger ones. Boys and girls maintain the relationship of brother and sister among themselves. There are schools up to +2 levels. At present there are 101 houses in different villages where more than 1200 people have been growing under the loving care of SOS mothers and other workers.

SOS children village at Jorpati (Kathmandu) is specially for orphans of all kinds of disabilities. Five boys and five girls of different age groups live in one house with a ‘Mother’. They have a small swimming pool, one gymnasium for special exercise. They are given all types of facilities so that they never feel that they are orphans. There is an orthopedic hospital nearby. Sometimes an operation can make things easier. All handicapped children attend normal schools. After SLC, they go to campuses or attend any vocational training to help them become independent. One of the students there said, “I came here when I was six year old. I have an artificial arm. Now I am studying BBS. I have already learnt to use the computer. When I pass my examination, I will look for a job. When I get a job I will move from this village to live independently”.



Red Cross Society

In 1859 AD, Jean Henri Dunant, a Swiss national had gone to Italy on vacation. It was the time when the great Battle of Solferino was going on in Italy. By chance Jean Henri Dunant reached the battle field. Forty thousand people were killed or injured. No one was there to help the war victims. There were neither doctors nor nurses or hospitals to treat them nor anybody to carry them away. Jean Henri Dunant was very shocked with this incident and resolved to help them. Jean Henri Dunant urged the women to take care and to supply the bandages, children to carry water and others to help the wounded. Collective efforts improved the situation within five weeks. After three years Jean Henri Dunant wrote a book- “A Memory of Solferino” in which he appealed to “the group of volunteers in all countries to help the victims of war or natural calamities like earthquake”. In 1863 AD, the delegates from 16 countries got together in Switzerland and founded the international Red Cross. Its flag has a red cross on white background. The flag is made in an honour of Switzerland. The Swiss flag has a white cross on a red background. In 1864 AD an international conference was held in Geneva, the capital of Switzerland. The delegrates from 12 countries attended this conference and they signed in an agreement that neither red cross volunteers nor wounded soldiers would be attacked. Now, the agreement also protects war prisoners and civilians. This conference is called the Geneva Convention.

Red Cross Society has now spread all over the world. 175 countries of the world including Nepal have set up national branches of Red Cross Society. Its headquarters is in Geneva. Muslim countries use a Red Crescent on a white flag and call themselves Red Crescent Society.
The basic principles of Red Cross Society are humanity, freedom, unity, neutrality, voluntary services and non-alignment. In the beginning the society was founded to help the wounded soldiers in the war but now it has extended its services in various sectors. Some of the works done by Red Cross Society are:
  • To provide food, clothes and other basic things to the victims of natural calamities like flood, earthquakes, hurricane, etc.
  • To rehabilitate refugees and homeless.
  • To provide medical treatment and distribute medicines free of cost.
  • To run blood transfusion programmes by setting up blood banks.
  • To provide training on home management for women in remote villages of developing countries.
  • To keep the record of prisoners and missing people.

Red Cross Society is funded either by the government grants or by voluntary contributions. The society also gives first aid training and looks after the physically challenged people. It also conducts rescue services.
Despite of being poor, Jean Henri served the poor and needy people for 15 years. Evaluating his great contributions, Jean Henri was rewarded the Nobel Prize in 1910 AD.
Nepal Red Cross Society was established in 1963 AD. Since then, it has been very active in providing its services to the needy people. The services rendered by Nepal Red Cross Society includes helping people during natural calamities like flood, earthquake, landslides, etc established blood banks, ambulance service, etc.