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Saturday, April 10, 2010

LISTED WORLD HERITAGE OF NEPAL

Saturday, April 10, 2010

The term ‘heritage’ refers to valuable objects and qualities such as historical buildings and cultural traditions that have been passed down from previous generation are to the present generation. The heritage reflects art, cultural and tradition of the country. Heritage includes in the list of the World Heritage Site.


Nepal is a country having various culture and natural heritage. Temples, monasteries, rest houses, inns, etc are religious heritage. Language, arts, dress, the way of living, etc are cultural heritage. Himalayan mountains, mines, rivers, waterfalls, lakes, forests, national parks, wildlife reserves, etc are natural heritage. All these religious, cultural and natural heritage are national properties. Besides, the public road, bridges, electricity, chautara, etc are also national properties. All the public properties which are under the ownership of the state/nation are the national heritage. UNESCO has included Chitwan National Park in the list of World Heritage in 1984 and Sagarmatha National Park in 1979 AD.

The following are national heritage enlisted in World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
  1. Lumbini
  2. Pashupati Area
  3. Sagarmatha National Park
  4. Chitwan National Park
  5. Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
  6. Patan Durbar Square
  7. Bhaktapur Durbar Square
  8. Changunarayan Temple
  9. Bauddhanath Stupa
  10. Swayambhunath Stupa

1. Lumbini
Lumbini is a peerless landmark of Buddhist world. Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. Lumbini is recognized as the pilgrimage of all the people of the world who follow the Buddhism. UNESCO enlisted Lumbini as the World Heritage Site in 1997 AD. The Ashoka Pillar which was made by Emperor Ashoka in 245 BC is located here. There are also the Puskarani Pond and Maya Devi Temple. In 1970 AD, 13 nations including Nepal have formed Lumbini Development Committee and it started Lumbini Development Master Plan. Under the plan, various countries of the world have constructed monasteries, stupas, etc in Lumbini. The countries like China, Myanmar, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, India, Thailand, France, Germany, etc have constructed many monasteries and stupas. Libraries, Museums, Research centres, etc are also located in Nepal.

2. Pashupati Area
Pashupati area is a holy place of the Hindus. The Pashupati area includes the temple of Pashupat, Deupatan, Jaya Begeshori, Gaurighat, Kutumbahal, Gaushala, Pingan Nath and Sleshmantak forest. There are about 492 temples, chaityas, satals, etc. Temples are constructed in various styles. There are about one thousand Shivalingas in the Pashupati area.

3. Sagarmatha National Park
Sagarmatha National Park was established on 19th July, 1976 AD. Sagarmatha National Park is located in Solukhumbu district of Sagarmatha zone. Sagarmatha National Park was enlisted in the World Heritage Site in 1976 AD. Sagarmatha National Park is extended in 1148 square kilometer area. The highest peak of the world Sagarmatha is located here. Besides, Lhotse, Choyu, Nuptse, Pumori, Amadablam, etc are other major peaks located in Sagarmatha National Park. The major vegetation found in this park is Rhododendron, dhupi, bhojpatra, etc. The birds and animals like wild yak, musk deer, red panda, snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, lophophorus (Danfe), polar cheetah, etc are found here.

4. Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park is one of the most important tourist destinations of Nepal. Chitwan National Park is located in Chitwan district and 120 kilometer south-west of Kathmandu. Chitwan National Park is especially famous for one-horned rhino, which is rarely found in the world. Royal Bengal Tiger is another important wildlife found in Chitwan National Park. Besides this, elephants, crocodiles, tigers, peacocks, etc are other important wildlife’s and varieties of birds found in Chitwan National Park.

5. Hanumandhoka Durbar Square
Hanumandhoka Durbar Square is located in the heart of the Kathmandu city. The Malla kings ruled over Kathmandu from Hanumandhoka Durbar Square palace. After the conquest of the Kathmandu valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah started to rule from here and it became the capital of unified Nepal. Hanumandhoka Durbar Square is said that Pratap Malla erected the statue of Hunuman in this palace and it was named Hanumandhoka. Besides Hanumandhoka, Basantapur palace, Taleju temple, Musuem, House of Kumari, Kasthamandap, a Kettledrum, etc are the ancient heritages located here.

6. Patan Durbar Square
Patan Durbar Square was the place of Malla kings during medieval Nepal. Patan Durbar Square is located in Lalitpur district. Krishna temple with 21 golden pinnacles (gajur) is the master piece of Malla art and architecture. Besides this, these are Bhimsen temple, Bishwanath temple, Jagat Narayan temple, Mahabauddha, Kumbheshor Mahadev, temple of Rato Machhindranath, etc.

7. Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Bhaktapur Durbar Square was the place from where the Malla kings of Bhaktapur ruled over their kingdom. The heritage like Fifty-five Window-palace, statue of Bhupatindra Malla, National Art Gallery, Golden Gate, Nyatapola, etc are located here. Bhaktapur Durbar Square is enlisted in World Heritage in 1979 AD.

8. Changunarayan Temple
Changunarayan Temple is the oldest temple in Kathmandu valley came into existence in the 4th century. Changunarayan Temple is adorned by some of the best specimen of stone, wood, and metal craft in the valley. The temple stands as the epitome of culture, religion, history and faith of Kathmandu valley. Changunarayan Temple is located in Bhaktapur district and 22 kilometer east of Kathmandu. Changunarayan Temple is constructed during the rule of Lichchhavi king Mandev. There is a lord Vishnu’s idol with ten heads and ten arms. This is a fine example of stone carving from the 5th century. Changunarayan Temple is made in Pagoda style. There are also inscription carved in stone, wood and metal craft made in the 5th century.

9. Bauddhanath Stupa
Bauddhanath Stupa, the biggest stupa in Nepal, lies about 7 kms east of the capital. Bauddhanath Stupa is one of the oldest stupas in the country. It is believed that this stupa was constructed in around 5th century. There are other 45 Buddhist monasteries in this area. UNESCO enlisted it in the World Heritage Site in 1979 AD.

10. Swayambhunath
The Buddhist temple of Swayambhunath is situated on the top of a hill in Kathmandu, is one of the most popular holy places and instantly recognizable symbol of Nepal. The temple is colloquially known as “monkey temple” because of the large tribe of roaming monkeys are found there. It is believed that this temple was constructed before the 5th century. Swayambhunath temple is regarded as the symbol of religious tolerance as there is the temple of Hindu goddess Saraswati. There are other stupas and idols also. Recently, the biggest statue of Buddha has been constructed near Swayambhunath temple.

Beside these heritages enlisted in World Heritage Site, there are many other natural and cultural heritages in Nepal such as Bardiya National Park, Shivapuri National Park, Halesi of Khotang, Swargadwari of Pyuthan, Gosaikunda of Rasuwa, Kalika temple of Baglung, Chhintan Devi of Dhankuta, Pathibhara of Taplejung, Muktinath of Mustang, Ram Janaki temple of Janakpur, Jaya Bageshori of Nepalgunj, Chandanath of Jumla, etc.



6 comments:

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Pramod Mahaseth said...

it is so pathetic that Janaki Temple of Janakpur-Dham is not in the list which deserve somehow on top. Literally it carries pride of nation and contains 1000 of history which is well known among the world as well.

Unknown said...

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gurung bharat said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
gurung bharat said...

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