Industry is means of earning. Industries are necessary for the developing for a country. Individual people also benefit from industries. Some of these advantages of industries are as follows:
- Industries utilize various local resources that are found in abundance in country.
- Industries provide works and employment for the growing population of the country.
- The burden on agriculture will be less when industries employ more people and produces varieties of things for our use.
- Industries develop agriculture by producing equipment and artificial manure.
- Industrial products can be exported and thus we can on by selling things produced in the industries.
- Industries help to develop the art and craft of a country.
- Industries help to raise the standard of living.
- Industries help to develop transport and communication and other development works.
- Industries make the country self-sufficient. We have to import fewer things from other countries when our industries produce the things of our need.
- About all, industries develop the economy of country.
The literary meaning of industry is the production of goods on small or large scale from the available raw materials especially in factories.
Infrastructures of Industry
Rapid development of a country depends upon the establishment of industries. Industries cannot run on their own. The pre-requisites needed for the establishment and running of industries are called infrastructures of industry.
Present age is an industrial age. Industrial development is the backbone of a country’s economy. Only small or cottage industries are not sufficient to fulfil the needs of a country. They alone cannot play the vital role in the development of a country as the production is low. Thus, the medium and large scale industries are essential for the rapid development of a country. Very few places of country have adequate infrastructures of large scale industry. In those places, medium and large scale industries have been established. An area having several types of industries like cottage or small scale, medium and large scale industries are called Industrial Estate. Several Industrial Estates have been set up by the government since 2016 BS. They are given below:
- Dhangadi Industrial Estate
- Nepalgunj Industrial Estate
- Butwal Industrial Estate
- Pokhara Industrial Estate
- Balaju Industrial Estate
- Bhaktapur Industrial Estate
- Patan Industrial Estate
- Hetanuda Industrial Estate
- Dhankuta Industrial Estate
- Dharan Industrial Estate
- Rajbiraj Industrial Estate
Beside the above mentioned industial estates, there are industries ranging from small and cottage to medium and large scale established in many parts of country. A country will become self-reliant if it has many good industries. Industries promote national economy and uplift the living standard of the people.
Types of Industry
There are mainly three types of industries. These are: Cottage and Small Scale Industry, Medium and Large Scale Industry, and Tourist Industry.
Cottage Industry: The traditional industries that are being carried on in village in small scale are called cottage industries. These industries use local materials to produce varieties of things for our daily use. The farmers do not throughout the year in the field. They work during rainy season to cultivate crops and in autumn season to harvest the crops they have planted. Rest of the time, they spend producing various things for their use and also to earn by selling them. The main cottage industries that are found in Nepal are as follows:
- Industries based on Agricultural products: Weaving threads with hands to prepare handloom cloth, make shoes from skin animals, make carpet from straw, sheep’s wool and coconut fibre, prepare sugar and jaggery (chaku) from sugarcane, produce oil from mustard seeds, etc. come under this category.
- Industries based on Vegetation: The works that prepare paper, table, chair, cot, basket, craft work, etc. fall under this category.
- Industries based on Animal products: The works that produce wool, leather good (jacket, belt, bag, etc.), carpets, sweater, cheese, butter, ghee, yogurt, etc. comes under this category.
- Industries based on Minerals: The works that make utensils, weapons, agriculture equipment, slate, chalk, etc. falls under this category.
These cottage industries can be maintained with a small investment in each house. These are useful to utilize the leisure time of the farmers in creative works. They do not only fulfill their needs but also can earn money by selling them. Cottage industries preserve traditional art and craft as well.
Medium and Large Scale Industries: In this industrial age, cottage industrial alone cannot fulfill our needs. They are not sufficient for the development of the country. So, the medium and large scale industries are essential for the rapid growth of the economic of the country. Only a limited number of medium and large scale industries have so far been established in Nepal. The first large scales industries of Nepal is Biratnagar Jute Mills which was established in 1936 A.D. Now, there are paper industries, sugar industries, agricultural tools industries, textile, cement, marble, tea, leather goods and steel industries in some parts of the kingdom.
Certain industrial estates in some places also have been established with produce various things. There are also some hydro-power projects to produce electricity on a large scale.
Tourist Industries: By nature, human beings are curious to learn new things, to travel to new places, to meet new people, etc. Nepal has become a very popular place to visit, for the people of different countries. Because of natural beauty, high mountains, old temples and houses, national art and craft, friendly manners and hospitality, Nepalese people have been able to attract people from other countries. The visitors also called tourists. Providing food and lodging for the tourists and guiding them to beautiful places and make up the tourist trade or tourist industry.
The tourist industry plays and important role in the economic life of the country. It helps us to earn foreign currency. People learn from the tourists about their way of life, civilization and development. Tourist also influence with Nepalese life style, culture and tradition. There is a separate ministry and department set up by the government for the development of tourist trade. Several tourist-centers, travel agencies, hotel and restaurants, etc. have been established at private level to provide services to the tourists. To welcome more tourists, people of Nepal observed the year 1998 at Visit Nepal Year. The most attractive places for the tourists are Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Patan, Pokhara, Lumbini, Chitwan, Janakpur, Tansen and several other hill stations where the high mountains are seen more closely.